July 3 Events
324 - Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. 987 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, the first of the Capetian dynasty that would rule France until the French Revolution in 1792. 1035 - William the Conqueror becomes the Duke of Normandy, reigns until 1087. 1608 - Québec City is founded by Samuel de Champlain. 1754 - French and Indian War: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French forces. 1767 - Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret. 1767 - Norway's oldest newspaper still in print, Adresseavisen, is founded and the first edition is published. 1775 - American Revolutionary War: George Washington takes command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1778 - American Revolutionary War: Iroquois allied to Britain kill 360 people in the Wyoming Valley massacre. 1819 - The Bank for Savings in the City of New-York, the first savings bank in the United States, opens. 1839 - The first state normal school in the United States, the forerunner to today's Framingham State University, opens in Lexington, Massachusetts with three students. 1844 - The last pair of great auks is killed. 1848 - Governor-General Peter von Scholten emancipates all remaining slaves in the Danish West Indies. 1849 - France invades the Roman Republic and restores the Papal States. 1852 - Congress establishes the United States' 2nd mint in San Francisco. 1863 - American Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett's Charge. 1866 - Austro-Prussian War is decided at the Battle of Königgrätz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria. 1884 - Dow Jones & Company publishes its first stock average. 1886 - Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, the first purpose-built automobile. 1886 - The New-York Tribune becomes the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand. 1890 - Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state. 1898 - A Spanish squadron, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is defeated by an American squadron under William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. 1913 - Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett's Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors. 1938 - World speed record for a steam locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of. 1938 - United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield. 1940 - World War II: The Royal Navy attacks the French naval squadron in Algeria, to ensure that it will not fall under German control. Of the four French battleships present, one is sunk, two are damaged, and one escapes back to France. 1944 - World War II: The Minsk Offensive clears German troops from the city. 1952 - The Constitution of Puerto Rico is approved by the United States Congress. 1952 - The sets sail on her maiden voyage to Southampton. During the voyage, the ship takes the Blue Riband away from the. 1967 - The Aden Emergency: The Battle of the Crater in which the British Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders retake the Crater district following the Arab Police mutiny. 1969 - Space Race: The biggest explosion in the history of rocketry occurs when the Soviet N-1 rocket explodes and subsequently destroys its launchpad. 1970 - The Troubles: The "Falls Curfew" begins in Belfast, Northern Ireland. 1970 - Dan-Air Flight 1903 crashes into the Les Agudes mountain in the Montseny Massif near the village of Arbúcies in Catalonia, Spain, killing all 112 people aboard. 1979 - U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. 1988 - United States Navy warship shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard. 1988 - The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey is completed, providing the second connection between the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus. 1996 - British Prime Minister John Major announced the Stone of Scone would be returned to Scotland. 2013 - Egyptian coup d'état: President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi's resignation, to which he did not respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president. Births 321 - Valentinian I, Roman emperor 1423 - Louis XI of France 1442 - Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado of Japan 1518 - Li Shizhen, Chinese physician and mineralogist 1530 - Claude Fauchet, French historian and author 1534 - Myeongjong of Joseon, Ruler of Korea 1550 - Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer 1569 - Thomas Richardson, English politician and judge 1683 - Edward Young, English poet, dramatist and literary critic 1685 - Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, English field marshal and politician 1728 - Robert Adam, Scottish-English architect, designed Culzean Castle 1738 - John Singleton Copley, American painter 1778 - Carl Ludvig Engel, German architect 1789 - Johann Friedrich Overbeck, German-Italian painter and engraver 1814 - Ferdinand Didrichsen, Danish botanist and physicist 1823 - Ahmed Vefik Pasha, Greek-Ottoman statesman, diplomat, playwright, and translator 1844 - Dankmar Adler, German-born American architect and engineer 1846 - Achilles Alferaki, Russian composer and politician, Governor of Taganrog 1851 - Charles Bannerman, English-Australian cricketer and umpire 1854 - Leoš Janáček, Czech composer and theorist 1860 - Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American sociologist and author 1866 - Albert Gottschalk, Danish painter 1869 - Svend Kornbeck, Danish actor 1870 - R. B. Bennett, Canadian lawyer and politician, 11th Prime Minister of Canada 1871 - William Henry Davies, Welsh poet and writer 1874 - Jean Collas, French rugby player and tug of war competitor 1875 - Ferdinand Sauerbruch, German surgeon and academic 1876 - Ralph Barton Perry, American philosopher and academic 1878 - George M. Cohan, American songwriter, actor, singer, and dancer 1879 - Alfred Korzybski, Polish-American mathematician, linguist, and philosopher 1880 - Carl Schuricht, Polish-German conductor 1883 - Franz Kafka, Czech-Austrian author 1886 - Raymond A. Spruance, American admiral and diplomat, United States Ambassador to the Philippines 1888 - Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Spanish author and playwright 1889 - Richard Cramer, American actor 1893 - Sándor Bortnyik, Hungarian painter and graphic designer 1896 - Doris Lloyd, English actress 1897 - Jesse Douglas, American mathematician and academic 1898 - Stefanos Stefanopoulos, Greek politician, Prime Minister of Greece 1900 - Alessandro Blasetti, Italian director and screenwriter 1901 - Ruth Crawford Seeger, American composer 1903 - Ace Bailey, Canadian ice hockey player and coach 1905 - Johnny Gibson, American hurdler and coach 1906 - George Sanders, Russian-born British actor 1908 - M. F. K. Fisher, American author 1908 - Robert B. Meyner, American lawyer and politician, 44th Governor of New Jersey 1909 - Stavros Niarchos, Greek shipping magnate 1910 - Fritz Kasparek, Austrian mountaineer 1911 - Joe Hardstaff Jr., English cricketer 1913 - Dorothy Kilgallen, American journalist, actress, and author 1916 - John Kundla, American basketball player and coach 1917 - João Saldanha, Brazilian footballer, manager, and journalist 1918 - S. V. Ranga Rao, Indian actor, director, and producer 1918 - Johnny Palmer, American golfer 1919 - Cecil FitzMaurice, 8th Earl of Orkney 1919 - Gerald W. Thomas, American soldier and academic 1920 - Eddy Paape, Belgian illustrator 1920 - Paul O'Dea, American baseball player and manager 1921 - Susan Peters, American actress 1921 - François Reichenbach, French director, producer, and screenwriter 1922 - Guillaume Cornelis van Beverloo, Belgian painter and sculptor 1922 - Theo Brokmann Jr., Dutch football player 1924 - Amalia Aguilar, Cuban-Mexican film actress and dancer 1924 - S. R. Nathan, 6th President of Singapore 1925 - Terry Moriarty, Australian rules footballer 1925 - Danny Nardico, American professional boxer 1925 - Philip Jamison, American artist 1926 - Johnny Coles, American trumpet player 1926 - Rae Allen, American actress, singer, and director 1926 - Laurence Street, Australian jurist and former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales 1927 - Ken Russell, English actor, director, and producer 1927 - Tim O'Connor, American actor 1928 - Evelyn Anthony, English author 1929 - Clément Perron, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter 1929 - Joanne Herring, American socialite, businesswoman, political activist, philanthropist, diplomat, and television talk show host 1930 - Pete Fountain, American clarinet player 1930 - Carlos Kleiber, German-Austrian conductor 1930 - Tommy Tedesco, American guitarist 1932 - Richard Mellon Scaife, American businessman 1933 - Edward Brandt, Jr., American physician and mathematician 1935 - Cheo Feliciano, Puerto Rican-American singer-songwriter 1935 - Harrison Schmitt, American geologist, astronaut, and politician 1936 - Anthony Lester, Baron Lester of Herne Hill, English lawyer and politician 1936 - Baard Owe, Norwegian-Danish actor 1937 - Nicholas Maxwell, English philosopher and academic 1937 - Tom Stoppard, Czech-English playwright and screenwriter 1938 - Jean Aitchison, English linguist and academic 1939 - Brigitte Fassbaender, German soprano and director 1939 - László Kovács, Hungarian politician and diplomat, Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1939 - Coco Laboy, Puerto Rican baseball player 1940 - Lamar Alexander, American lawyer and politician, 5th United States Secretary of Education 1940 - Jerzy Buzek, Polish engineer and politician, 9th Prime Minister of Poland 1940 - Lance Larson, American swimmer 1940 - César Tovar, Venezuelan baseball player 1941 - Gloria Allred, American lawyer and activist 1941 - Liamine Zéroual, Algerian politician, 4th President of Algeria 1942 - Eddy Mitchell, French singer-songwriter 1943 - Gary Waldhorn, British actor 1943 - Judith Durham, Australian folk-pop singer-songwriter and musician 1943 - Kurtwood Smith, American actor 1943 - Norman E. Thagard, American astronaut 1945 - Michael Cole, American actor 1945 - Michael Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, Scottish politician, Speaker of the House of Commons 1946 - Johnny Lee, American singer and guitarist 1946 - Leszek Miller, Polish political scientist and politician, 10th Prime Minister of Poland 1946 - Michael Shea, American author 1947 - Dave Barry, American journalist and author 1947 - Betty Buckley, American actress and singer 1947 - Mike Burton, American swimmer 1948 - Paul Barrere, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 1948 - Tarmo Koivisto, Finnish author and illustrator 1949 - Susan Penhaligon, English actress 1949 - John Verity, English guitarist 1949 - Johnnie Wilder, Jr., American singer 1949 - Bo Xilai, Chinese politician, Chinese Minister of Commerce 1950 - Ewen Chatfield, New Zealand cricketer 1950 - James Hahn, American judge and politician, 40th Mayor of Los Angeles 1951 - Jean-Claude Duvalier, Haitian politician, 41st President of Haiti 1951 - Richard Hadlee, New Zealand cricketer and footballer 1952 - Laura Branigan, American singer-songwriter 1952 - Lu Colombo, Italian singer 1952 - Andy Fraser, English singer-songwriter and bass player 1952 - Carla Olson, American singer-songwriter and music producer 1952 - Wasim Raja, Pakistani cricketer 1952 - Amit Kumar, Indian film playback singer, actor, director, music director and musician 1953 - Lotta Sollander, Swedish alpine skier 1954 - Les Cusworth, English rugby player 1955 - Claude Rajotte, Canadian radio and television host 1956 - Montel Williams, American talk show host and television personality 1957 - Poly Styrene, British musician 1958 - Matthew Fraser, Canadian-English journalist and academic 1958 - Charlie Higson, English actor, singer, and author 1958 - Siân Lloyd, Welsh meteorologist and journalist 1958 - Didier Mouron, Swiss-Canadian painter 1958 - Aaron Tippin, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer 1959 - Julie Burchill, English journalist and author 1959 - Ian Maxtone-Graham, American screenwriter and producer 1959 - Stephen Pearcy, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 1959 - David Shore, Canadian screenwriter and producer 1960 - Vince Clarke, English singer-songwriter, keyboard player, and producer 1962 - Scott Borchetta, American record executive and entrepreneur 1962 - Tom Cruise, American actor and producer 1964 - Yeardley Smith, American actress, voice actress, comedian and writer 1965 - Shinya Hashimoto, Japanese wrestler 1965 - Connie Nielsen, Danish-American actress 1965 - Komsan Pohkong, Thai lawyer and academic 1965 - Christophe Ruer, French pentathlete 1966 - Moisés Alou, American baseball player 1967 - Katy Clark, Scottish lawyer and politician 1968 - Ramush Haradinaj, Kosovo-Albanian soldier and politician, 4th Prime Minister of Kosovo 1970 - Serhiy Honchar, Ukrainian cyclist 1970 - Audra McDonald, American actress and singer 1970 - Teemu Selänne, Finnish ice hockey player 1971 - Julian Assange, Australian journalist, publisher, and activist, founded WikiLeaks 1973 - Paul Rauhihi, New Zealand rugby league player 1973 - Ólafur Stefánsson, Icelandic handball player 1973 - Fyodor Tuvin, Russian footballer 1976 - Wade Belak, Canadian ice hockey player 1976 - Henry Olonga, Zimbabwean cricketer and sportscaster 1976 - Wanderlei Silva, Brazilian-American mixed martial artist 1976 - Bobby Skinstad, Zimbabwean-South African rugby union player 1977 - David Bowens, American football player 1978 - Mizuki Noguchi, Japanese runner 1979 - Jamie Grove, English cricketer 1980 - Mazharul Haque, Bangladeshi cricketer 1980 - Roland Schoeman, South African swimmer 1980 - Harbhajan Singh, Indian cricketer 1983 - Edinson Vólquez, Dominican baseball player 1984 - Manny Lawson, American football player 1984 - Churandy Martina, Dutch sprinter 1984 - Corey Sevier, Canadian actor and producer 1986 - Marco Antônio de Mattos Filho, Brazilian footballer 1986 - Kisenosato Yutaka, Japanese sumo wrestler 1987 - Sebastian Vettel, German race car driver 1988 - Winston Reid, New Zealand-Danish footballer 1988 - Vladislav Sesganov, Russian figure skater 1988 - James Troisi, Australian footballer 1989 - Mitchell Dodds, Australian rugby league player 1989 - Elle King, American singer, songwriter, and actress 1990 - Nathan Gardner, Australian rugby league player 1990 - Bobby Hopkinson, English footballer 1990 - Lucas Mendes, Brazilian footballer 1991 - Alison Howie, Scottish field hockey player 1991 - Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova, Russian tennis player 1992 - Will Smith, Australian rugby league player 1994 - Ben Winchell, American actor Deaths 458 - Anatolius of Constantinople, Byzantine patriarch and saint 710 - Emperor Zhongzong of Tang 896 - Dong Chang, Chinese warlord 964 - Henry I, Frankish nobleman and archbishop 1090 - Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen 1288 - Stephen de Fulbourn, English-born Irish cleric and politician 1503 - Pierre d'Aubusson, Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes 1570 - Aonio Paleario, Italian academic and reformer 1642 - Marie de' Medici, French queen consort and regent 1672 - Francis Willughby, English ornithologist and ichthyologist 1749 - William Jones, Welsh-English mathematician and academic 1790 - Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, French geologist and mineralogist 1795 - Louis-Georges de Bréquigny, French scholar and author 1795 - Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish general, astronomer, and politician, 1st Colonial Governor of Louisiana 1809 - Joseph Quesnel, French-Canadian composer and playwright 1863 - George Hull Ward, American general 1863 - Little Crow, American tribal leader 1881 - Hasan Tahsini, Albanian astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher 1887 - Clay Allison, American rancher 1888 - Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Vietnamese poet and author 1904 - Édouard Beaupré, Canadian giant and strongman 1904 - Theodor Herzl, Austrian journalist and playwright 1908 - Joel Chandler Harris, American journalist and author 1916 - Hetty Green, American businesswoman and financier 1918 - Mehmed V, Ottoman sultan 1921 - James Mitchel, Irish-American weight thrower 1927 - Gérard de Courcelles, French race car driver 1933 - Hipólito Yrigoyen, Argentinian educator and politician, 19th President of Argentina 1935 - André Citroën, French engineer and businessman, founded the Citroën Company 1937 - Jacob Schick, American-Canadian captain and businessman, invented the electric razor 1940 - Nicolae Bivol, Moldovan businessman and politician, Mayor of Chișinău 1941 - Friedrich Akel, Estonian physician and politician, Head of State of Estonia 1954 - Siegfried Handloser, German physician and general 1954 - Reginald Marsh, French-American painter, illustrator, and academic 1957 - Dolf Luque, Cuban baseball player and manager 1957 - Richard Mohaupt, German composer and Kapellmeister 1958 - Charles Bathurst, 1st Viscount Bledisloe, English politician, 4th Governor-General of New Zealand 1969 - Brian Jones, English guitarist, songwriter, and producer 1971 - Jim Morrison, American singer-songwriter 1974 - John Crowe Ransom, American poet and critic 1977 - Alexander Volkov, Russian mathematician and author 1978 - James Daly, American actor 1979 - Louis Durey, French pianist and composer 1981 - Ross Martin, American actor and director 1985 - Frank J. Selke, Canadian ice hockey player and manager 1986 - Rudy Vallée, American singer, saxophonist, and actor 1989 - Jim Backus, American actor and voice artist 1993 - Don Drysdale, American baseball player and sportscaster 1994 - Lew Hoad, Australian tennis player and coach 1995 - Pancho Gonzales, American tennis player 1995 - Eddie Mazur, Canadian ice hockey player 1998 - Danielle Bunten Berry, American game designer and programmer 1999 - Mark Sandman, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer 1999 - Pelageya Polubarinova-Kochina, Russian mathematician 1999 - Manoj Kumar Pandey,Param Vir ChakraIndian army personnel 2001 - Mordecai Richler, Canadian author and screenwriter 2001 - Johnny Russell, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 2004 - Andriyan Nikolayev, Russian general, pilot, and astronaut 2005 - Alberto Lattuada, Italian actor, director, and screenwriter 2005 - Gaylord Nelson, American lawyer and politician, 35th Governor of Wisconsin 2006 - Joseph Goguen, American computer scientist, developed the OBJ programming language 2007 - Boots Randolph, American saxophonist 2008 - Clive Hornby, English actor and drummer 2008 - Oliver Schroer, Canadian fiddler, composer, and producer 2009 - Alauddin Al-Azad, Bangladeshi author and poet 2009 - John Keel, American journalist and author 2010 - Abu Daoud, Palestinian terrorist, planned the Munich massacre 2011 - Ali Bahar, Bahraini singer and guitarist 2012 - Nguyễn Hữu Có, Vietnamese general and politician 2012 - Andy Griffith, American actor, singer, and producer 2012 - Yvonne B. Miller, American educator and politician 2012 - Sergio Pininfarina, Italian engineer and politician 2012 - Richard Alvin Tonry, American lawyer and politician 2013 - Roman Bengez, Slovenian footballer and manager 2013 - Francis Ray, American author 2013 - PJ Torokvei, Canadian actress and screenwriter 2013 - Radu Vasile, Romanian historian and politician, 57th Prime Minister of Romania 2013 - Bernard Vitet, French trumpet player and composer 2013 - Snoo Wilson, English playwright and screenwriter 2014 - Jini Dellaccio, American photographer 2014 - Tim Flood, Irish hurler and coach 2014 - Volkmar Groß, German footballer 2014 - Ira Ruskin, American politician 2014 - Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, Ukrainian-American rabbi and author 2015 - Diana Douglas, British-American actress 2015 - Boyd K. Packer, American religious leader and educator 2015 - Wayne Townsend, American farmer and politician 2015 - Phil Walsh, Australian footballer and coach 2020 - Saroj Khan, Indian dance choreographer, known as "The Mother of Dance/Choreography in India". Holidays and observances Christian feast day: *Anatolius of Constantinople *Anatolius of Laodicea *Dathus *Germanus of Man *Gurthiern *Heliodorus of Altino *Mucian *Peregrina Mogas Fontcuberta *Pope Leo II *Thomas the Apostle *July 3 Emancipation Day Independence Day, celebrates the liberation of Minsk from Nazi occupation by Soviet troops in 1944 The start of the Dog Days according to the Old Farmer's Almanac but not according to established meaning in most European cultures Women's Day
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