Specification (technical standard)
A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard.
There are different types of technical or engineering specifications, and the term is used differently in different technical contexts. They often refer to particular documents, and/or particular information within them. The word specification is broadly defined as "to state explicitly or in detail" or "to be specific".
A requirement specification is a documented requirement, or set of documented requirements, to be satisfied by a given material, design, product, service, etc. It is a common early part of engineering design and product development processes, in many fields.
A functional specification is a kind of requirement specification, and may show functional block diagrams.
A design or product specification describes the features of the solutions for the Requirement Specification, referring to either a designed solution or final produced solution. It is often used to guide fabrication/production. Sometimes the term specification is here used in connection with a data sheet, which may be confusing. A data sheet describes the technical characteristics of an item or product, often published by a manufacturer to help people choose or use the products. A data sheet is not a technical specification in the sense of informing how to produce.
An "in-service" or "maintained as" specification, specifies the conditions of a system or object after years of operation, including the effects of wear and maintenance.
Specifications are a type of technical standard that may be developed by any of various kinds of organizations, both public and private. Example organization types include a corporation, a consortium, a trade association, a national government, a professional association, a purpose-made standards organization such as ISO, or vendor-neutral developed generic requirements. It is common for one organization to refer to the standards of another. Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract.
UseIn engineering, manufacturing, and business, it is vital for suppliers, purchasers, and users of materials, products, or services to understand and agree upon all requirements.
A specification may refer to a standard which is often referenced by a contract or procurement document, or an otherwise agreed upon set of requirements. In any case, it provides the necessary details about the specific requirements.
Standards for specifications may be provided by government agencies, standards organizations, trade associations, corporations, and others. The following British standards apply to specifications:
- BS 7373-1:2001 Guide to the preparation of specifications
- BS 7373-2:2001 Product specifications. Guide to identifying criteria for a product specification and to declaring product conformity
- BS 7373-3:2005, Product specifications. Guide to identifying criteria for specifying a service offering
Guidance and contentSometimes a guide or a standard operating procedure is available to help write and format a good specification. A specification might include:
- Descriptive title, number, identifier, etc. of the specification
- Date of last effective revision and revision designation
- A logo or trademark to indicate the document copyright, ownership and origin
- Table of Contents, if the document is long
- Person, office, or agency responsible for questions on the specification, updates, and deviations.
- The significance, scope or importance of the specification and its intended use.
- Terminology, definitions and abbreviations to clarify the meanings of the specification
- Test methods for measuring all specified characteristics
- Material requirements: physical, mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc. Targets and tolerances.
- Acceptance testing, including performance testing requirements. Targets and tolerances.
- Drawings, photographs, or technical illustrations
- Certifications required.
- Safety considerations and requirements
- Environmental considerations and requirements
- Quality control requirements, acceptance sampling, inspections, acceptance criteria
- Person, office, or agency responsible for enforcement of the specification.
- Completion and delivery.
- Provisions for rejection, reinspection, rehearing, corrective measures
- References and citations for which any instructions in the content maybe required to fulfill the traceability and clarity of the document
- Signatures of approval, if necessary
- Change record to summarize the chronological development, revision and completion if the document is to be circulated internally
- Annexes and Appendices that are expand details, add clarification, or offer options.
Construction specifications in North AmericaSpecifications in North America form part of the contract documents that accompany and govern the construction of building and infrastructure projects. Specifications describe the quality and performance of building materials, using code citations and published standards, whereas the drawings or building information model illustrates quantity and location of materials. The guiding master document of names and numbers is the latest edition of MasterFormat. This is a consensus document that is jointly sponsored by two professional organizations: Construction Specifications Canada and Construction Specifications Institute based in the United States and updated every two years.
While there is a tendency to believe that "specifications overrule drawings" in the event of discrepancies between the text document and the drawings, the actual intent must be made explicit in the contract between the Owner and the Contractor. The standard AIA and EJCDC states that the drawings and specifications are complementary, together providing the information required for a complete facility. Many public agencies, such as the Naval Facilities Command state that the specifications overrule the drawings. This is based on the idea that words are easier for a jury to interpret than drawings in case of a dispute.
The standard listing of construction specifications falls into 50 divisions, or broad categories of work types and work results involved in construction. The divisions are subdivided into sections, each one addressing a specific material type or a work product of the construction work. A specific material may be covered in several locations, depending on the work result: stainless steel can be covered as a sheet material used in flashing and sheet Metal in division 07; it can be part of a finished product, such as a handrail, covered in division 05; or it can be a component of building hardware, covered in division 08. The original listing of specification divisions was based on the time sequence of construction, working from exterior to interior, and this logic is still somewhat followed as new materials and systems make their way into the construction process.
Each section is subdivided into three distinct parts: "general", "products" and "execution". The MasterFormat and section format system can be successfully applied to residential, commercial, civil, and industrial construction. Although many Architects find the rather voluminous commercial style of specifications too lengthy for most residential projects and therefore either produce more abbreviated specifications of their own or use ArCHspec. Master specification systems are available from multiple vendors such as Arcom, Visispec, BSD, and Spectext. These systems were created to standardize language across the United States and are usually subscription based.
Specifications can be either "performance-based", whereby the specifier restricts the text to stating the performance that must be achieved by the completed work, "prescriptive" where the specifier states the specific criteria such as fabrication standards applicable to the item, or "proprietary", whereby the specifier indicates specific products, vendors and even contractors that are acceptable for each workscope. In addition, specifications can be "closed" with a specific list of products, or "open" allowing for substitutions made by the Contractor. Most construction specifications are a combination of performance-based and proprietrary types, naming acceptable manufacturers and products while also specifying certain standards and design criteria that must be met.
While North American specifications are usually restricted to broad descriptions of the work, European ones and Civil work can include actual work quantities, including such things as area of drywall to be built in square meters, like a bill of materials. This type of specification is a collaborative effort between a specwriter and a quantity surveyor. This approach is unusual in North America, where each bidder performs a quantity survey on the basis of both drawings and specifications. In many countries on the European continent, content that might be described as "specifications" in the United States are covered under the building code or municipal code. Civil and infrastructure work in the United States often includes a quantity breakdown of the work to be performed as well.
Although specifications are usually issued by the architect's office, specification writing itself is undertaken by the architect and the various engineers or by specialist specification writers. Specification writing is often a distinct professional trade, with professional certifications such as "Certified Construction Specifier" available through the Construction Specifications Institute and the Registered Specification Writer through Construction Specifications Canada. Specification writers are either employees of or sub-contractors to architects, engineers, or construction management companies. Specification writers frequently meet with manufacturers of building materials who seek to have their products specified on upcoming construction projects so that contractors can include their products in the estimates leading to their proposals.
In February 2015, ArCHspec went live, from ArCH, a nationwide American professional society of Architects whose purpose is to improve residential architecture. ArCHspec was created specifically for use by Licensed Architects while designing SFR architectural projects. Unlike the more commercial CSI, ArCHspec utilizes the more recognizable 16 traditional Divisions, plus a Division 0 and Division 17. Many architects, up to this point, did not provide specifications for residential designs, which is one of the reasons ArCHspec was created: to fill a void in the industry with more compact specifications for residential use. Shorter form specifications documents suitable for residential use are also available through Arcom, and follow the 50 division format, which was adopted in both the United States and Canada starting in 2004. The 16 division format is no longer considered standard, and is not supported by either CSI or CSC, or any of the subscription master specification services, data repositories, product lead systems, and the bulk of governmental agencies.
Construction specifications in EgyptSpecifications in Egypt form part of contract documents. The Housing and Building National Research Center is responsible for developing construction specifications and codes. The HBRC has published more than 15 books which cover building activities like earthworks, plastering, etc.
Construction specifications in the UKSpecifications in the UK are part of the contract documents that accompany and govern the construction of a building. They are prepared by construction professionals such as architects, architectural technologists, structural engineers, landscape architects and building services engineers. They are created from previous project specifications, in-house documents or master specifications such as the National Building Specification. The National Building Specification is owned by the Royal Institute of British Architects through their commercial group RIBA Enterprises. NBS master specifications provide content that is broad and comprehensive, and delivered using software functionality that enables specifiers to customize the content to suit the needs of the project and to keep up to date.
UK project specification types fall into two main categories prescriptive and performance. Prescriptive specifications define the requirements using generic or proprietary descriptions of what is required, whereas performance specifications focus on the outcomes rather than the characteristics of the components.
Specifications are an integral part of Building Information Modeling and cover the non-geometric requirements.
Food and drug specificationsPharmaceutical products can usually be tested and qualified by various Pharmacopoeia. Current existing pharmaceutical standards include:
- British Pharmacopoeia
- European Pharmacopoeia
- Japanese Pharmacopoeia
- The International Pharmacopoeia
- United States Pharmacopeia
food manufacturing, of which Codex Alimentarius ranks the highest standards, followed by regional and national standards.
The coverage of food and drug standards by ISO is currently less fruitful and not yet put forward as an urgent agenda due to the tight restrictions of regional or national constitution.
Specifications and other standards can be externally imposed as discussed above, but also internal manufacturing and quality specifications. These exist not only for the food or pharmaceutical product but also for the processing machinery, quality processes, packaging, logistics, etc. and are exemplified by ISO 14134 and ISO 15609.
The converse of explicit statement of specifications is a process for dealing with observations that are out-of-specification. The United States Food and Drug Administration has published a non-binding recommendation that addresses just this point.
At the present time, much of the information and regulations concerning food and food products remain in a form which makes it difficult to apply automated information processing, storage and transmission methods and techniques.
Data systems that can process, store and transfer information about food and food products need formal specifications for the representations of data about food and food products in order to operate effectively and efficiently.
Development of formal specifications for food and drug data with the necessary and sufficient clarity and precision for use specifically by digital computing systems have begun to emerge from some government agencies and standards organizations: the United States Food and Drug Administration has published specifications for a "Structured Product Label" which drug manufacturers must by mandate use to submit electronically the information on a drug label. Recently, the ISO has made some progress in the area of food and drug standards and formal specifications for data about regulated substances through the publication of ISO 11238.
Specification needIn many contexts, particularly software, specifications are needed to avoid errors due to lack of compatibility, for instance, in interoperability issues.
For instance, when two applications share Unicode data, but use different normal forms or use them incorrectly, in an incompatible way or without sharing a minimum set of interoperability specification, errors and data loss can result. For example, Mac OS X has many components that prefer or require only decomposed characters. In one specific instance, the combination of OS X errors handling composed characters, and the samba file- and printer-sharing software, has led to confusing and data-destroying interoperability problems.
Applications may avoid such errors by preserving input code points, and only normalizing them to the application's preferred normal form for internal use.
Such errors may also be avoided with algorithms normalizing both strings before any binary comparison.
However errors due to file name encoding incompatibilities have always existed, due to a lack of minimum set of common specification between software hoped to be inter-operable between various file system drivers, operating systems, network protocols, and thousands of software packages.