Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm caused by others. Beneficiaries of security may be of persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change.
s fleeing war and insecurity in Iraq and Syria arrive at Lesbos Island, supported by Spanish volunteers, 2015
Security mostly refers to protection from hostile forces, but it has a wide range of other senses: for example, as the absence of harm ; as the presence of an essential good ; as resilience against potential damage or harm ; as secrecy ; as containment ; and as a state of mind.
The term is also used to refer to acts and systems whose purpose may be to provide security.
EtymologyThe word 'secure' entered the English language in the 16th century. It is derived from Latin securus, meaning freedom from anxiety: se + cura.
ReferentA security referent is the focus of a security policy or discourse; for example, a referent may be a potential beneficiary of a security policy or system.
Security referents may be persons or social groups, objects, institutions, ecosystems, or any other phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by the forces of its environment. The referent in question may combine many referents, in the same way that, for example, a nation state is composed of many individual citizens.
ContextThe security context is the relationships between a security referent and its environment. From this perspective, security and insecurity depend first on whether the environment is beneficial or hostile to the referent, and also how capable is the referent of responding to its/their environment in order to survive and thrive.
CapabilitiesThe means by which a referent provides for security vary widely. They include, for example:
- Coercive capabilities, including the capacity to project coercive power into the environment ;
- Protective systems
- Warning systems
- Diplomatic and social action intended to prevent insecurity from developing ; and
- Policy intended to develop the lasting economic, physical, ecological and other conditions of security.
Contested approachesApproaches to security are contested and the subject of debate. For example, in debate about national security strategies, some argue that security depends principally on developing protective and coercive capabilities in order to protect the security referent in a hostile environment. Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships can develop, partly by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, and also that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively.
Contexts of security (examples)The table shows some of the main domains where security concerns are prominent.
- Communications security
- Computer security
- Internet security
- Application security
- Data security
- Digital security
- Information security
- Network security
- Endpoint securityPhysical realm
- Airport security
- Corporate security
- Food security
- Environmental security
- Home security
- Infrastructure security
- Physical security
- Port security/Supply chain security
- Security bag
- Security print
- Border Security
- Security seal
- National security
- Public security
- Homeland security
- Internal security
- International security
- Human security
- Economic security/financial security
- Social security
Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, and the Internet. The field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed. The means of computer security include the physical security of systems and security of information held on them.
Corporate securityCorporate security refers to the resilience of corporations against espionage, theft, damage, and other threats. The security of corporations has become more complex as reliance on IT systems has increased, and their physical presence has become more highly distributed across several countries, including environments that are, or may rapidly become, hostile to them. corporate headquarters in Atlanta
s and metal detectors are used to control what is allowed to pass through an airport security perimeter.
in Jakarta, Indonesia
Ecological securityEcological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere, particularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms. The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown.
about ecological security, Belarus, 2016
Food securityFood security refers to the ready supply of, and access to, safe and nutritious food. Food security is gaining in importance as the world's population has grown and productive land has diminished through overuse and climate change.
is affecting global agriculture and food security
Home securityHome security normally refers to the security systems used on a property used as a dwelling ; and personal security practices in the East End of London.
Human securityHuman security is the name of an emerging paradigm which, in response to traditional emphasis on the right of nation states to protect themselves, has focused on the primacy of the security of people. The concept is supported by the United Nations General Assembly, which has stressed "the right of people to live in freedom and dignity" and recognized "that all individuals, in particular vulnerable people, are entitled to freedom from fear and freedom from want".
National securityNational security refers to the security of a nation state, including its people, economy, and institutions. In practice, state governments rely on a wide range of means, including diplomacy, economic power, and military capabilities.
Perceptions of securitySince it is not possible to know with precision the extent to which something is 'secure', perceptions of security vary, often greatly. For example, a fear of death by earthquake is common in the United States, but slipping on the bathroom floor kills more people; and in France, the United Kingdom and the US there are far fewer deaths caused by terrorism than there are women killed by their partners in the home.
Another problem of perception is the common assumption that the mere presence of a security system implies security. For example, two computer security programs installed on the same device can prevent each other from working properly, while the user assumes that he or she benefits from twice the protection that only one program would afford.
Security theater is a critical term for measures that change perceptions of security without necessarily affecting security itself. For example, visual signs of security protections, such as a home that advertises its alarm system, may deter an intruder, whether or not the system functions properly. Similarly, the increased presence of military personnel on the streets of a city after a terrorist attack may help to reassure the public, whether or not it diminishes the risk of further attacks.
Security concepts (examples)Certain concepts recur throughout different fields of security:
- Access control - the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.
- Assurance - an expression of confidence that a security measure will perform as expected.
- Authorization - the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular.
- Countermeasure - a means of preventing an act or system from having its intended effect.
- Defense in depth - a school of thought holding that a wider range of security measures will enhance security.
- Exploit - a means of capitalizing on a vulnerability in a security system.
- Identity management - enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times and for the right reasons.
- Resilience - the degree to which a person, community, nation or system is able to resist adverse external forces.
- Risk - a possible event which could lead to damage, harm, or loss.
- Security management - identification of an organization's assets, followed by the development, documentation, and implementation of policies and procedures for protecting these assets.
- Threat - a potential source of harm.
- Vulnerability - the degree to which something may be changed by external forces.