Manufacturing Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale, using labor and machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary industry. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high-tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial design, in which raw materials from primary industry are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products, or distributed via the tertiary industry to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering, or the manufacturing process, are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers, use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, Precision Castparts, and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens,BASF and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. History and developmentIn its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. In the pre-industrial world, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world. The main characteristic of the factory system is the use of machinery, originally powered by water or steam and later by electricity. Increased use of economies of scale, the centralization of factories, and standardization of interchangeable parts were adopted in the American system of manufacturing in the nineteenth century. Manufacturing in the Soviet Union was based on collectivism. Manufacturing systems: methods of manufacturing Economics of manufacturinghave provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies. SafetyManufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Manufacturing and investmentSurveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth; Competitiveness; and Attractiveness to foreign direct investors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organization has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda. List of top 20 manufacturing countries by total value of manufacturing in US dollars for its noted year according to World Bank.
Rank Country/Region Millions of $US Year World 13,171,000 2017 1 4,002,752 2018 2 2,173,319 2017 3 1,007,330 2017 4 832,431 2018 5 440,941 2018 6 408,693 2018 7 310,897 2018 8 273,971 2018 9 251,985 2018 10 208,498 2018 11 207,017 2018 12 203,988 2018 13 180,541 2018 14 180,264 2018 15 160,531 2015 16 146,077 2018 17 135,927 2018 18 129,162 2018 19 115,591 2018 20 100,232 2018 Manufacturing processes
Popular articles The Boys (2019 TV series) - American superhero web television series based on the comic book of the same name by Garth Ennis and Darick Robertson. Developed by Eric Kripke for Amazon, it follows the eponymous te... John Lennon - John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer, songwriter and peace activist who gained worldwide fame as the founder, co-lead vocalist, and rhythm guitarist of the Beatles. His songwriting partners... Rafael Nadal - Spanish professional tennis player currently ranked world No. 2 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Nadal has won 19 Gra... Louise Glück - American poet and essayist. One of the most prominent American poets of her generation, she has won many major literary awards in the United States, including the Natio... Eddie Van Halen - Dutch-American musician, songwriter, producer, and inventor. He is the main songwriter and founder—with brother and drummer Alex Van Halen, bassist Mark Stone, and s... Novak Djokovic - Serbian professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No. 1 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Djokovic has won 17 Grand Slam singles... YouTube - American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in Februar... Popular movies Enola Holmes (film) - upcoming British mystery film based on the book series of the same name by Nancy Springer. The film is directed by Harry Bradbeer and written by Jack Thorne. Millie Bobby Brown st... Mulan (2020 film) - 2020 American action drama film based on the Chinese folklore "The Ballad of Mulan" and... Hubie Halloween - upcoming American comedy film, directed by Steven Brill and written by Adam Sandler and Tim Herlihy. It stars Sandler, Kevin James, Julie Bowen, Maya Rudolph, Ray Liotta, Steve... Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba - Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Koyoharu Gotōge. It follows Tanjiro Kamado, a young boy who becomes a demon slayer after his family is slaughter... Tenet (film) - co-production between the United Kingdom and United States, and stars John David Washington, Robert Pattin... The Walking Dead: World Beyond - upcoming American post-apocalyptic horror drama limited series created by Scott M. Gimple and Matthew Negrete that is set to premiere on AMC on October 4, 2020. ... Charm City Kings - 2020 American drama film, directed by Angel Manuel Soto, from a screenplay by Sherman Payne, and a story by Kirk Sullivan, Chris Boyd, and Barry Jenkins. It stars Jahi Di'Allo ... Popular video games Minecraft - sandbox video game developed by Mojang Studios. Created by Markus "Notch" Persson in the Java programming language and released as a public alpha for personal computers in 2... Among Us - Among Us - English video game published on June 18, 2018. It was presented as indie game, party video game.... Roblox - online game platform and game creation system that allows users to program games and play games created by other users. Founded by David Baszucki and Erik Cassel in 2004 and released in... Cyberpunk 2077 - upcoming role-playing video game developed and published by CD Projekt. It is scheduled to be released for PlayStation 4, Windows, and Xbox One on 19 November 2020, Stadia by th... Genshin Impact - upcoming open-world action role-playing video game developed by miHoYo. It is the second game from miHoYo to feature original IP, the first being Gun GirlZ . History. Genshin... FIFA 21 - part of FIFA. It was presented as sports video game.... Baldur's Gate - fantasy role-playing video game developed by BioWare and published in 1998 by Interplay Entertainment. It is the first game in the Baldur's Gate series and takes place in the Fo... Popular books Nineteen Eighty-Four - dystopian novel by English novelist George Orwell. It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final book... Re:Zero − Starting Life in Another World - Japanese light novel series written by Tappei Nagatsuki and illustrated by Shin'ichirō Ōtsuka. The story centres on, a hikikomori who suddenly fin... Bible - collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. They generally consider the Bible to be a product of divine inspiration and a... Dune (novel) - 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert, originally published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Aw... Sword Art Online - Japanese light novel series written by Reki Kawahara and illustrated by abec. The series takes place in the near future and focuses on protagonist Kazuto "Kirito" Ki... Brave New World - dystopian novel by English author Aldous Huxley, written in 1931 and published in 1932. Largely set in a futuristic World State, whose citizens are environmentally engineered in... The Sunday Philosophy Club Series - series of novels by the author Alexander McCall Smith. It is also the name of the first novel in the series, and an informal talking group founded by the main charact... Popular television series
The Boys (2019 TV series) - American superhero web television series based on the comic book of the same name by Garth Ennis and Darick Robertson. Developed by Eric Kripke for Amazon, it follows the eponymous te... The Walking Dead (TV series) - American post-apocalyptic horror television series for AMC based on the comic book series by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, and Charlie Adlard. The series features a large ensemb... Emily in Paris - upcoming American comedy-drama television series created by Darren Star that is set to premiere in the fall of 2020 on Netflix. Produced by Jax Media and MTV Studios, the series... The Haunting of Bly Manor - follow-up to the American anthology supernatural horror drama web television series The Haunting of Hill House , created and directed by Mike Flanagan for Netflix, an... Raised by Wolves (American TV series) - upcoming American science fiction drama television series created by Ridley Scott and Aaron Guzikowski set to premiere on HBO Max. Premise. Raised by Wolves centers around ... Ratched (TV series) - upcoming American drama web television series, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey, that is set to premiere on Netflix on September 18, 2020. The ser... The Haunting of Hill House (TV series) - American anthology supernatural horror drama web television series created and directed by Mike Flanagan, and produced by Amblin Television and Paramount Television,...
OWIKI.org. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.