Russian is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages alongside, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian.
Russian was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 26 December 1991. Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states. Large numbers of Russian speakers can also be found in other countries, such as Israel and Mongolia.
Russian is the largest native language in Europe and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia. It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, with 144 million speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the seventh-most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the eighth-most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second-most widespread language on the Internet, after English.
Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically though an optional acute accent may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example :ru:Замок |замо́к and :ru:Замок |за́мок, or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names.
ClassificationRussian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family. It is a descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus', a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries. From the point of view of spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn, the other three languages in the East Slavic branch. In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although it vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian. In the 19th century, the language was often called "Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called "White Russian" and Ukrainian, then called "Little Russian".
The vocabulary, principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language.
Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and English, and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic, Persian, and Arabic, as well as Hebrew.
According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. It is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in U.S. world policy.
Standard RussianFeudal divisions and conflicts as well as other obstacles to the exchange of goods and ideas that ancient Russian principalities have suffered from before and especially during the Mongol yoke strengthened dialectical differences and for a while prevented the emergence of the standardized national language. The formation of the unified and centralized Russian state in 15th and 16th centuries and the gradual emergence of a common political, economic, and cultural space have created the need for a common standard language. The initial impulse for the standardization came from the government bureaucracy for the lack of a reliable tool of communication in administrative, legal, and judicial affairs became an obvious practical problem. The earliest attempts at standardizing Russian were made based on the so-called Moscow official or chancery language. Since then the underlying logic of language reforms in Russia reflected primarily the considerations of standardizing and streamlining language norms and rules in order to ensure the Russian language's role as a practical tool of communication and administration.
The current standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language. It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Great, and developed from the Moscow dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancery language.
Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755; in 1783 the Russian Academy's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished.
Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features are still observed in colloquial speech.
Geographic distributionIn 2010, there were 259.8 million speakers of Russian in the world: in Russia – 137.5 million, in the CIS and Baltic countries – 93.7 million, in Eastern Europe – 12.9 million, Western Europe – 7.3 million, Asia – 2.7 million, Middle East and North Africa – 1.3 million, Sub-Saharan Africa – 0.1 million, Latin America – 0.2 million, U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand – 4.1 million speakers. Therefore, the Russian language is the seventh-largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, French, Arabic and Portuguese.
Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics.
EuropeIn Belarus, Russian is a second state language alongside Belarusian per the Constitution of Belarus. 77% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 67% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In Estonia, Russian is spoken by 29.6% of the population according to a 2011 estimate from the World Factbook. and is officially considered a foreign language.
In Latvia, Russian is officially considered a foreign language. 55% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 26% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. On 18 February 2012, Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language. According to the Central Election Commission, 74.8% voted against, 24.9% voted for and the voter turnout was 71.1%. Beginning in 2019, instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools.
In Lithuania, Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. In contrast to the other two Baltic states, Lithuania has a relatively small Russian-speaking minority.
In Moldova, Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law. 50% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 19% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
According to the 2010 census in Russia, Russian language skills were indicated by 138 million people, while according to the 2002 census – 142.6 million people.
In Ukraine, Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 14,400,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 29 million active speakers. 65% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 38% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work. On 5 September 2017, Ukraine's Parliament passed a new education law which bars primary education to all students in any language but Ukrainian. The law faced criticism from officials in Russia.
In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR. According to the Eurobarometer 2005 survey, fluency in Russian remains fairly high in some countries, in particular those where the people speak a Slavic language and thereby have an edge in learning Russian.
Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language. The United Kingdom, Germany, Finland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Norway, and Austria have significant Russian-speaking communities.
AsiaIn Armenia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. 30% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 2% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. 26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 5% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In China, Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the northeastern Heilongjiang province.
In Georgia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Russian is the language of 9% of the population according to the World Factbook. Ethnologue cites Russian as the country's de facto working language.
In Kazakhstan, Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration. The 2009 census reported that 10,309,500 people, or 84.8% of the population aged 15 and above, could read and write well in Russian, as well as understand the spoken language.
In Kyrgyzstan, Russian is a co-official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. The 2009 census states that 482,200 people speak Russian as a native language, or 8.99% of the population. Additionally, 1,854,700 residents of Kyrgyzstan aged 15 and above fluently speak Russian as a second language, or 49.6% of the population in the age group.
In Tajikistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation. 28% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 7% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. The World Factbook notes that Russian is widely used in government and business.
In Turkmenistan, Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in 1996. Russian is spoken by 12% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook. Nevertheless, the Turkmen state press and websites regularly publish material in Russian and there is the Russian-language newspaper Neytralny Turkmenistan, the television channel TV4, and there are schools like Joint Turkmen-Russian Secondary School.
In Uzbekistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication. It has some official roles, being permitted in official documentation and is the lingua franca of the country and the language of the elite. Russian is spoken by 14.2% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook.
In 2005, Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia, and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in 2006.
Russian is also spoken in Israel. The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1.5 million Israelis, 15% of the population. The Israeli press and websites regularly publish material in Russian and there are Russian newspapers, television stations, schools, and social media outlets based in the country. There is an Israeli TV channel mainly broadcasting in Russian with Israel Plus. See also Russian language in Israel.
Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan.
In Vietnam, Russian has been added in the elementary curriculum along with Chinese and Japanese and were named as "first foreign languages" for Vietnamese students to learn, on equal footing with English.
North AmericaThe language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during the 18th century. Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in 1867, a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left. In Nikolaevsk, Alaska Russian is more spoken than English. Sizable Russian-speaking communities also exist in North America, especially in large urban centers of the U.S. and Canada, such as New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Nashville, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, Toronto, Baltimore, Miami, Chicago, Denver, and Cleveland. In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves. Only about 25% of them are ethnic Russians, however. Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the overwhelming majority of Russophones in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn in New York City were Russian-speaking Jews. Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians. According to the United States Census, in 2007 Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over 850,000 individuals living in the United States.
In the second half of the 20th century, Russian was the most popular foreign language in Cuba. Besides being taught at universities and schools, there were also educational programs on the radio and TV. However, starting January 2019 the Cuban television opens an educational program devoted to the Russian language. This project is fully entitled to be called an anticipated one, because the Russian – Cuban collaboration is a strategic direction actively developed as more and more young people are interested in the Russian language, the Education navigator informs. The Havana State University has started a bachelor's specialization called the Russian Language and the Second Foreign Language. There is also the Russian language department, where students can scrutinize e-books without internet connection. Additional courses on the Russian language are open at two schools of the Cuban capital city.
An estimated 200,000 people speak the Russian language in Cuba, on the account that more than 23,000 Cubans who took higher studies in the former Soviet Union and later in Russia, and another important group of people who studied at military schools and technologists, plus the nearly 2,000 Russians residing in Cuba and their descendants.
As an international languageRussian is one of the official languages of the following:
- United Nations
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- World Health Organization
- International Civil Aviation Organization
- World Intellectual Property Organization
- International Telecommunication Union
- World Meteorological Organization
- Food and Agriculture Organization
- International Fund for Agricultural Development
- International Criminal Court
- International Monetary Fund
- International Olympic Committee
- Universal Postal Union
- World Bank
- Commonwealth of Independent States
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
- Eurasian Economic Community
- Collective Security Treaty Organization
- Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
- International Organization for Standardization
- GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development
- International Mathematical Olympiad
- Warsaw Pact
- Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
In March 2013 it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English. People use the Russian language on 5.9% of all websites, slightly ahead of German and far behind English. Russian is used not only on 89.8% of.ru sites, but also on 88.7% of sites with the former Soviet Union domain.su. The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: 79.0% in Ukraine, 86.9% in Belarus, 84.0% in Kazakhstan, 79.6% in Uzbekistan, 75.9% in Kyrgyzstan and 81.8% in Tajikistan. However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1,000 sites, behind English, Chinese, French, German, and Japanese.
DialectsRussian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors. The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, the enormous distance between notwithstanding.
Despite leveling after 1900, especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central, and Southern, with Moscow lying in the Central region. All dialects are also divided into two main chronological categories: the dialects of primary formation and secondary formation. Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary, and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language.
The Northern Russian dialects and those spoken along the Volga River typically pronounce unstressed clearly, a phenomenon called okanye. Besides the absence of vowel reduction, some dialects have high or diphthongal in place of and in stressed closed syllables instead of Standard Russian and. Another Northern dialectal morphological feature is a post-posed definite article -to, -ta, -te similarly to that existing in Bulgarian and Macedonian.
In the Southern Russian dialects, instances of unstressed and following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to , being instead pronounced in such positions – this is called yakanye.
Consonants include a fricative, a semivowel and, whereas the Standard and Northern dialects have the consonants,, and final and, respectively.
The morphology features a palatalized final in 3rd person forms of verbs. Some of these features such as akanye and yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited, a semivowel and palatalized final in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian, indicating a linguistic continuum.
The city of Veliky Novgorod has historically displayed a feature called chokanye or tsokanye, in which and were switched or merged. So, has been recorded as чапля. Also, the second palatalization of velars did not occur there, so the so-called ě² did not cause to shift to ; therefore, where Standard Russian has , the form кепь is attested in earlier texts.
Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century. In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. In modern times, the monumental Dialectological Atlas of the Russian Language, was published in three folio volumes 1986–1989, after four decades of preparatory work.
- Balachka, a dialect spoken in Krasnodar region, Don, Kuban, and Terek, brought by relocated Cossacks in 1793 and is based on the southwest Ukrainian dialect. During the Russification of the aforementioned regions in the 1920s to 1950s, it was replaced by the Russian language.
- Fenya, a criminal argot of ancient origin, with Russian grammar, but with distinct vocabulary
- Medny Aleut language, a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island that is characterized by its Aleut nouns and Russian verbs
- Padonkaffsky jargon, a slang language developed by padonki of Runet
- Quelia, a macaronic language with Russian-derived basic structure and part of the lexicon borrowed from German
- Runglish, a Russian-English pidgin. This word is also used by English speakers to describe the way in which Russians attempt to speak English using Russian morphology and/or syntax.
- Russenorsk, an extinct pidgin language with mostly Russian vocabulary and mostly Norwegian grammar, used for communication between Russians and Norwegian traders in the Pomor trade in Finnmark and the Kola Peninsula
- Trasianka, a heavily russified variety of Belarusian used by a large portion of the rural population in Belarus
- Taimyr Pidgin Russian, spoken by the Nganasan on the Taimyr Peninsula
Older letters of the Russian alphabet include, which merged to ; and, which both merged to ;, which merged to ;, which merged to ;, which merged to ; and and, which later were graphically reshaped into and merged phonetically to or. While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. The yers and originally indicated the pronunciation of ultra-short or reduced,.
TransliterationBecause of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet. For example, is transliterated moroz, and , mysh or myš'. Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding, which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet. Free programs leveraging this Unicode extension are available which allow users to type Russian characters, even on Western 'QWERTY' keyboards.
ComputingThe Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding. This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. Nevertheless, the spread of MS-DOS and OS/2, traditional Macintosh and Microsoft Windows meant the proliferation of many different encodings as de facto standards, with Windows-1251 becoming a de facto standard in Russian Internet and e-mail communication during the period of roughly 1995–2005.
All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF-8. A number of encoding conversion applications were developed. "iconv" is an example that is supported by most versions of Linux, Macintosh and some other operating systems; but converters are rarely needed unless accessing texts created more than a few years ago.
In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet, as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.
OrthographyThe current spelling follows the major reform of 1918, and the final codification of 1956. An update proposed in the late 1990s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.
According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress. For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: замо́к – за́мок, сто́ящий – стоя́щий, чудно́ – чу́дно, молоде́ц – мо́лодец, узна́ю – узнаю́, отреза́ть – отре́зать ; to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words, especially personal and family names, like афе́ра, гу́ру, Гарси́я, Оле́ша, Фе́рми, and to show which is the stressed word in a sentence, for example Ты́ съел печенье? – Ты съе́л печенье? – Ты съел пече́нье?. Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.
PhonologyThe phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year 1400.
The language possesses five vowels, which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. The hard consonants are often velarized, especially before front vowels, as in Irish and Marshallese. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa.
The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds. Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus and C for each consonant, the maximal structure can be described as follows:
However, Russian has a constraint on syllabification such that syllables cannot span multiple morphemes.
Clusters of four consonants are not very common, especially within a morpheme. Some examples are: , , .
ConsonantsRussian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of its consonants. While do have palatalized allophones, only might be considered a phoneme, though it is marginal and generally not considered distinctive. The only native minimal pair that argues for being a separate phoneme is это этот . Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. In the case of and, the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication. The sounds are dental, that is, pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth rather than against the alveolar ridge.
VowelsRussian has five or six vowels in stressed syllables, and in some analyses, but in most cases these vowels have merged to only two to four vowels when unstressed: after hard consonants and after soft ones.
GrammarRussian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic-inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place.
Russian grammar encompasses:
- a highly fusional morphology
- a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements:
- * a polished vernacular foundation;
- * a Church Slavonic inheritance;
- * a Western European style.
The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience. Firstly with the newly conquered southwestern regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde, for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.
In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present, and future - and each verb has two aspects. Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine, or neuter, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence. Russian has six cases: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Instrumental, and Prepositional. Verbs of motion in Russian - such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim', and 'fly' - use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of prefixes to add more meaning to the verb.
VocabularySee History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian.
The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin, are as follows:
|Academic dictionary, I Ed.||1789–1794||43,257||Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.|
|Academic dictionary, II Ed||1806–1822||51,388||Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.|
|Dictionary of Pushkin's language||1810–1837||>21,000||The dictionary of virtually all words from his works was published in 1956–1961. Some consider his works to contain 101,105.|
|Academic dictionary, III Ed.||1847||114,749||Russian and Church Slavonic with Old Russian vocabulary.|
|Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language||1880–1882||195,844||44,000 entries lexically grouped; attempt to catalogue the full vernacular language. Contains many dialectal, local, and obsolete words.|
|Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language||1934–1940||85,289||Current language with some archaisms.|
|Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language||1950–1965|
|120,480||"Full" 17-volumed dictionary of the contemporary language. The second 20-volumed edition was begun in 1991, but not all volumes have been finished.|
|Lopatin's dictionary||1999–2013||≈200,000||Orthographic, current language, several editions|
|Great Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language||1998–2009||≈130,000||Current language, the dictionary has many subsequent editions from the first one of 1998.|
|Russian Wiktionary||3 September 2019||429,738||Number of entries in the category|
History and examplesThe history of the Russian language may be divided into the following periods:
- Kievan period and feudal breakup
- The Moscow period
- Standard national language
of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.
Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately 1100. On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. They became distinct since the 13th century, i.e. following the division of the land between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Poland in the west and independent Novgorod and Pskov feudal republics plus numerous small duchies in the east.
The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic, which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age, when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.
The political reforms of Peter the Great were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers would not need one.
The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin in the first third of the 19th century. Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning. In fact, many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolai Gogol, Aleksander Griboyedov, became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in modern Russian colloquial speech.
Бу́ря мгло́ю не́бо кро́ет,
Ви́хри сне́жные крутя́;
То, как зверь, она́ заво́ет,
То запла́чет, как дитя́,
То по кро́вле обветша́лой
Вдруг соло́мой зашуми́т,
То, как пу́тник запозда́лый,
К нам в око́шко застучи́т.
The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific, and technological matters, gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the mid-20th century.
During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in 1990. Following the break-up of the USSR in 1991, several of the newly independent states have encouraged their native languages, which has partly reversed the privileged status of Russian, though its role as the language of post-Soviet national discourse throughout the region has continued.
The Russian language in the world declined after 1991 due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia, however this has since been reversed.
|Source||Native speakers||Native rank||Total speakers||Total rank|
|G. Weber, "Top Languages",|
3: 12–18, 1997, ISSN 1369-9733
|CIA World Factbook||160,000,000||8|
According to figures published in 2006 in the journal ":ru:Демоскоп Weekly|Demoskop Weekly" research deputy director of Research Center for Sociological Research of the Ministry of Education and Science Arefyev A. L., the Russian language is gradually losing its position in the world in general, and in Russia in particular. In 2012, A. L. Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world. In the countries of the former Soviet Union the Russian language was being replaced or used in conjunction with local languages. Currently, the number of speakers of Russian in the world depends on the number of Russians in the world and total population in Russia.
|Year||worldwide population, million||population Russian Empire, Soviet Union and Russian Federation, million||share in world population, %||total number of speakers of Russian, million||share in world population, %|