Country A country is a political state, nation, or controlled territory. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence, or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, a physical territory with a government, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. It is not inherently sovereign. Countries can refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities,such as Vatican City, while other times it can refer only to states. For example, the CIA World Factbook uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states". The largest country in the world is Russia, while the most populous is China, followed by India and the United States of America. The newest country with widespread international recognition as a sovereign state is South Sudan. Etymology and usageThe word country comes from Old French contrée, which derives from Vulgar Latin contrata lying opposite"; ", derived from contra. It most likely entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. In English the word has increasingly become associated with political divisions, so that one sense, associated with the indefinite article – "a country" – through misuse and subsequent conflation is now a synonym for state, or a former sovereign state, in the sense of sovereign territory or "district, native land". Areas much smaller than a political state may be called by names such as the West Country in England, the Black Country, "Constable Country", the "big country", "coal country" and many other terms. The equivalent terms in French and other Romance languages have not carried the process of being identified with political sovereign states as far as the English "country", instead derived from, pagus, which designated the territory controlled by a medieval count, a title originally granted by the Roman Church. In many European countries the words are used for sub-divisions of the national territory, as in the German Bundesländer, as well as a less formal term for a sovereign state. France has very many "pays" that are officially recognized at some level, and are either natural regions, like the Pays de Bray, or reflect old political or economic entities, like the Pays de la Loire. A version of "country" can be found in the modern French language as contrée, based on the word cuntrée in Old French, that is used similarly to the word "pays" to define non-state regions, but can also be used to describe a political state in some particular cases. The modern Italian contrada is a word with its meaning varying locally, but usually meaning a ward or similar small division of a town, or a village or hamlet in the countryside. Sovereignty statusThe term "country" can refer to a sovereign state. There is no universal agreement on the number of "countries" in the world since a number of states have disputed sovereignty status. By one application of the declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood, there are 206 sovereign states; of which 193 are members of the United Nations, two have observer status at the UN, and 11 others are neither a member nor observer at the UN. The latest proclaimed state is South Sudan since 2011. The degree of autonomy of non-sovereign countries varies widely. Some are possessions of sovereign states, as several states have overseas territories, with citizenry at times identical and at times distinct from their own. Such territories, with the exception of distinct dependent territories, are usually listed together with sovereign states on lists of countries, but may nonetheless be treated as a separate "country of origin" in international trade, as Hong Kong is. A few states consist of a union of smaller polities which are considered countries: Several organizations seek to identify trends in order to produce country classifications. Countries are often distinguished as The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four separate countries: Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten. The United Kingdom includes England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Crown Dependencies, which are not part of the UK itself, are also sometimes referred to as countries. The Kingdom of Denmark includes three separate countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Country classification developing countries or developed countries. The United Nations The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs annually produces the World Economic Situation and Prospects report that classified states as developed countries, economies in transition, or developing countries. The report classifies country development based on per capita gross national income. Within the broad categories, the United Nations identified subgroups based on geographical location or ad hoc criteria. The UN outlines the geographical regions for developing economies as Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The 2019 report recognizes only developed countries in North America, Europe, and Asia and the Pacific. The majority of economies in transition and developing countries are found in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The UN additionally recognizes multiple trends that impact the developmental status of countries in the World Economic Situation and Prospects. The report highlights fuel-exporting and fuel-importing countries, as well as small island developing states and landlocked developing countries. It also identifies heavily indebted poor countries. The World Bank The World Bank also classifies countries based on GNI per capita. Using the World Bank Atlas method, it classifies countries as low-income economies, lower-middle-income economies, upper-middle-income economies, or high-income economies. For the 2020 fiscal year, the World Bank defines low-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita of $1,025 or less in 2018; lower middle-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $3,995; upper middle-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita between $3,996 and $12,375; high-income economies as countries with a GNI per capita of $12,376 or more. It also identifies regional trends. The World Bank defines its regions as East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, North America, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Lastly, the World Bank distinguishes countries based on the operational policies of the World Bank. The three categories include International Development Association countries, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development countries, and Blend countries.
Popular articles Angela Merkel - German politician who has been Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the Leader of the Christian Democratic Union from 2000 to 2018. Merkel has been widely desc... Oleksandr Usyk - Ukrainian professional boxer. He reigned as the undisputed cruiserweight champion from 2018 until he vacated his titles in 2019, being the first cruiserweight in h... Next German federal election - The next German federal election for the 20th Bundestag is expected to be held between August and October 2021. Background. Previous election. The 2017 federal elections were held after a four-ye... Social Democratic Party of Germany - social-democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Uni... Cleopatra - Cleopatra VII Philopator was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek ge... Sex Education (TV series) - British comedy-drama web television series created by Laurie Nunn. Starring Asa Butterfield as an insecure teenager and Gillian Anderson as his mother, a sex therapist, the series... YouTube - American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in Februar... Popular movies Dune (2020 film) - upcoming 2020 epic science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve with a screenplay by Jon Spaihts, Eric Roth and Villeneuve. The film... Free Guy - upcoming American science fiction action comedy film directed by Shawn Levy from a screenplay by Matt Lieberman and Zak Penn and a story by Lieberman. The film stars Ryan Reynolds, Jo... No Time to Die - forthcoming spy film and the twenty-fifth instalment in the James Bond film series produced by Eon Productions. The film features Daniel Craig in his fifth and final outing as ... Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings - upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Shang-Chi. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Mot... Venom: Let There Be Carnage - upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Venom, produced by Columbia Pictures in association with Marvel. Distributed by Sony Pictures ... Dune (1984 film) - 1984 American epic science fiction film written and directed by David Lynch and based on the 1965 Frank Herbert novel of the same name. The film stars Kyle MacLachlan as young nobleman Pau... Black Widow (2020 film) - upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is int... Popular video games Roblox - online game platform and game creation system that allows users to program games and play games created by other users. Founded by David Baszucki and Erik Cassel in 2004 and released in... Genshin Impact - upcoming open-world action role-playing video game developed by miHoYo. It is the second game from miHoYo to feature original IP, the first being Gun GirlZ . History. Genshin... League of Legends - multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Riot Games for Microsoft Windows and macOS. Inspired by Defense of the Ancients , the game follows a fre... Diablo II - action role-playing hack-and-slash computer video game developed by Blizzard North and published by Blizzard Entertainment in 2000 for Microsoft Windows, Classic Mac OS, and macOS. T... Grand Theft Auto V - 2013 action-adventure game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It is the first main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series since 2008's Grand Theft ... Kena: Bridge of Spirits - upcoming action-adventure game developed and published by Ember Lab. It is scheduled for release in late 2020 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and PlayStation 5. G... Deltarune - role-playing video game created by Toby Fox. The player controls a human, Kris, in a world inhabited by monsters. Kris and a classmate named Susie fall into an unknown place called th... Popular books Dune (novel) - 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert, originally published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Aw... Foundation (Asimov novel) - science fiction novel by American writer Isaac Asimov. It is the first published in his Foundation Trilogy . Foundation ... Bible - collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. They generally consider the Bible to be a product of divine inspiration and a... Nineteen Eighty-Four - dystopian novel by English novelist George Orwell. It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final book... SCP Foundation - fictional organization documented by the web-based collaborative-fiction project of the same name. Within the website's fictional setting, the SCP Foundation is responsible f... James Bond - The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. Since Fleming's de... The Witcher - fantasy series of novels and short stories written by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski. The series revolves around the titular "witcher", Geralt of Rivia. In Sapkowski's wo... Popular television series
Sex Education (TV series) - British comedy-drama web television series created by Laurie Nunn. Starring Asa Butterfield as an insecure teenager and Gillian Anderson as his mother, a sex therapist, the series... Foundation (TV series) - upcoming American science fiction television series based on the book series of the same name by Isaac Asimov and produced for Apple TV+. The series was in pre-production, but on Ma... Money Heist - Spanish heist crime drama television series created by Álex Pina. The series traces two long-prepared heists led by the Professor, one on the Royal Mint of Spain, and one on the Ba... What If...? (TV series) - upcoming American animated web television anthology series created for Disney+ by A.C. Bradley, based on the Marvel Comics series of the same name. It explores what would happen if... The Walking Dead (TV series) - American post-apocalyptic horror television series for AMC based on the comic book series by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, and Charlie Adlard. The series features a large ensemb... Ted Lasso (TV series) - continuation of the character Sudeikis portrayed in a series of promos for NBC... The Sandman (TV series) (television series) - The Sandman (TV series) - Netflix's future television adaptation of Neil Gaiman's "The Sandman."....
OWIKI.org. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.