Livery company

There are 110 livery companies, comprising London's ancient and modern trade associations and guilds, almost all of which are styled the 'Worshipful Company of...' their respective craft, trade or profession. These livery companies play a significant part in the life of the City of London, not least by providing charitable-giving and networking opportunities. Liverymen retain voting rights for the senior civic offices, such as the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs and Corporation, its ancient municipal authority with extensive local government powers.
The term livery originated in the specific form of dress worn by retainers of a nobleman and then by extension to special dress to denote status of belonging to a trade. Livery companies evolved from London's medieval guilds, becoming corporations under Royal Charter responsible for training in their respective trades, as well as for the regulation of aspects such as wage control, labour conditions and industry standards. Early guilds often grew out of parish fraternal organizations, where large groups of members of the same trade lived in close proximity and gathered at the same church. Like most organisations during the Middle Ages, these livery companies had close ties with the Catholic Church, endowing religious establishments such as chantry chapels and churches, observing religious festivals with hosting ceremonies and well-known mystery plays. Most livery companies retain their historical religious associations, although nowadays members are free to follow any faith or none. Companies often established a guild or meeting hall, and though they faced destruction in the Great London Fire of 1666 and during the Blitz of World War II, thirty-nine companies maintain their sometimes elaborate and historic halls.
Most livery companies still maintain contacts with their original trade, craft or professional roles. Some still exercise powers of regulation, inspection and enforcement, while others are awarding bodies for professional qualifications. The Scriveners' Company admits senior members of legal and associated professions, the Apothecaries' Society awards post-graduate qualifications in some medical specialties, and the Hackney Carriage Drivers' Company comprises licensed taxi drivers who have passed the "Knowledge of London" test. Several companies restrict membership to those holding relevant professional qualifications, e.g. the City of London Solicitors' Company and the Worshipful Company of Engineers. Other companies, whose trade died out long ago, such as the Longbow Makers' Company, have evolved into being primarily charitable foundations.
After the Carmen received City livery status in 1848 no new companies were established for 80 years until the Master Mariners in 1926. Post-1926 creations are known as modern livery companies. The Worshipful Company of Arts Scholars, the newest, was granted livery status on 11 February 2014, making it the 110th City livery company in order of precedence. The Honourable Company of Air Pilots is exceptional among London's livery companies in having active overseas committees in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand and North America.


Training and industry

The companies were originally formed, starting in the 12th century, to guarantee that a member was trustworthy and fully qualified, and that the goods they produced were of reputable quality, the two-fold aim being to protect the public and to protect members from charlatans. Many were formed up until the 17th century, when political upheaval and the growth of London around the City meant the companies, which only controlled trade in the City itself, began to struggle to compete.
From the 1870s however, there was a revival, with the companies extending their original educational purpose to technical education, supporting new industries and providing the training necessary to them, most notably the City and Guilds of London Institute.

Charity and education

From the start, the companies cared for their members in sickness and old age. Today, they support both their members, and wider charitable aims and activities, including those supporting education and training.
Several schools in the UK are associated with the livery companies such as Haberdashers', Merchant Taylors' and Skinners'.

Support to the armed forces

Most livery companies have affiliations with regular and reserve units in the armed forces.

City of London governance

Finally, the companies have always been essential to the [|governance of the City of London]. The senior members of the livery companies, i.e, the liverymen, elect the City's sheriffs, Bridge Masters, Ale Conners, auditors, the members of the City Livery Committee, and approve the aldermanic candidates for election to the office of Lord Mayor of London.


Entry to a livery company may be by one of four routes:
Regardless of method of entry, membership carries the same duties and benefits. Membership of a livery company conveys the Freedom of the City of London, now little more than a formality, though in the past the freedom carried benefits, such as being able to take a flock of sheep across London Bridge at no charge.


Livery companies are governed by a master, a number of wardens, and a court of assistants, responsible for company business and electing its master and wardens. The clerk to the company is invariably its most senior permanent member of staff, who as chief executive officer runs its day-to-day activities.
Membership generally falls into two categories: freemen and liverymen. One may become a freeman, or acquire the "freedom of the company", upon fulfilling certain criteria: traditionally, by "patrimony", if either parent were a liveryman of the company; by "servitude", if one has served a requisite number of years as an apprentice to a senior company member; or by "redemption", upon paying a fee. Most livery companies reserve the right to admit distinguished people, particularly in their sphere of influence, as honorary freemen. Freemen may advance to become liverymen, after obtaining the freedom of the City of London, and with their court of assistants' approval. Only liverymen are eligible to vote in the annual election of the Lord Mayor of London, the sheriffs and various other City civic offices, including the Ale Conners and Bridge Masters.
The livery companies elect a majority of the members of the Livery Committee, a body administered at Guildhall. The committee oversees the elections of sheriffs and the Lord Mayor, educates liverymen regarding the City and its activities, represents the livery companies in communications with the City.


A liveryman is a full member of his respective company.
When a freeman becomes a liveryman, the candidate is said to be 'enclothed': indeed, a livery gown is placed on him at the court and he is seen at the next formal or social occasion wearing it. Thereafter only the master, wardens and assistants in companies are seen wearing these at company events. The masters wear them at the City's formal events, e.g. the two Common Halls and the United Guilds Service, and Lord Mayor's Show, wherever they may participate. Ordinarily, liverymen wear ties at formal functions and each company differs by allowing women to wear distinct items subject to the occasion, such as a scarf or brooch.
Freemen are expected to advance to become liverymen by a vote of the court of the company. Liverymen no longer have any local authority franchise in the City, but retain the exclusive right of voting in the election of the Lord Mayor of the City of London and for the sheriffs held in Guildhall as a ceremonial occasion. The votes are made by 'acclamation' subject to a challenge/demand from the floor for a ballot which would be held a week later. Any two liverymen may nominate a candidate for the Freedom of the City.

Former parliamentary election rights

Before the Reform Act 1832 the liverymen had the exclusive right to elect the four Members of Parliament representing the City. Between 1832 and 1918 being a liveryman was one of a number of possible franchises which could qualify a parliamentary elector in the City of London constituency, as it was a preserved ancient borough franchise under the terms of the 1832 Act.
See also City of London for further details of the history of the involvement of liverymen in parliamentary elections.

Livery halls

Today 39 out of 110 City livery companies own premises in London, as well as the Watermen and Lightermen which although not strictly a livery company, retains headquarters still in regular use. Among the earliest companies known to have had halls are the Merchant Taylors and Goldsmiths in the 14th century, and, uniquely, the kitchen and the crypt of Merchant Taylors' Hall survived both the Great Fire of London and the Blitz, the kitchen now having been in uninterrupted use for over 600 years.
Besides surviving parts of Merchant Taylors’ Hall, the oldest hall interiors now extant are those of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries, dating from 1668–71; significant portions of the fabric of this building are also medieval, from the 13th-century priory part of which became the Apothecaries’ Hall. Several companies that do not have a hall of their own share office premises within the hall of another company on a semi-permanent basis, examples being the Spectacle Makers' Company, which uses part of Apothecaries' Hall, and the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, which co-habits with the Ironmongers. Many livery halls can be hired for business and social functions, and are popular for weddings, commercial and society meetings, luncheons and dinners.
Three livery companies share a hall in Southwark, just south of and outside the City of London, while the Worshipful Company of Gunmakers has long been based at Proof House, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and the Master Mariners' "hall" is an historical ship, HQS Wellington, moored on the Thames which is shared by the Scriveners' Company. Companies without halls customarily book use of another livery hall for their formal gatherings, giving members and guests the opportunity to visit and enjoy different City livery halls by rotation.
Blue plaques throughout the City of London indicate where companies formerly had halls. Whilst several livery companies may aspire to owning or regaining their own hall it is appreciated that any increase in the overall number of livery halls would inevitably lead to some dilution of use of the existing halls. There is also attraction in belonging to a company which is.


In 1515, the Court of Aldermen of the City of London settled an order of precedence for the 48 livery companies then in existence, based on those companies' contemporary economic or political power. The 12 highest-ranked companies remain known as the Great Twelve City Livery Companies. Today there are 110 City livery companies, all post-1515 companies being ranked by seniority of creation.
The Merchant Taylors and the Skinners have long disputed their precedence, so once a year they swap between sixth and seventh places. This mix-up is a favourite theory for the origin of the phrase "at sixes and sevens", as has been pointed out by at least one Master Merchant Taylor; however, it is possible that the phrase may have been coined before these two companies resolved their dispute, which arose from their both receiving Charters in 1327 with no proof surviving as to which was granted first.

List of companies in order of precedence

  1. Worshipful Company of Mercers
  2. Worshipful Company of Grocers
  3. Worshipful Company of Drapers
  4. Worshipful Company of Fishmongers
  5. Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths
  6. Worshipful Company of Skinners*
  7. Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors*
  8. Worshipful Company of Haberdashers
  9. Worshipful Company of Salters
  10. Worshipful Company of Ironmongers
  11. Worshipful Company of Vintners
  12. Worshipful Company of Clothworkers
  13. Worshipful Company of Dyers
  14. Worshipful Company of Brewers
  15. Worshipful Company of Leathersellers
  16. Worshipful Company of Pewterers
  17. Worshipful Company of Barbers
  18. Worshipful Company of Cutlers
  19. Worshipful Company of Bakers
  20. Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers
  21. Worshipful Company of Tallow Chandlers
  22. Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers
  23. Worshipful Company of Girdlers
  24. Worshipful Company of Butchers
  25. Worshipful Company of Saddlers
  26. Worshipful Company of Carpenters
  27. Worshipful Company of Cordwainers
  28. Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers
  29. Worshipful Company of Curriers
  30. Worshipful Company of Masons
  31. Worshipful Company of Plumbers
  32. Worshipful Company of Innholders
  33. Worshipful Company of Founders
  34. Worshipful Company of Poulters
  35. Worshipful Company of Cooks
  36. Worshipful Company of Coopers
  37. Worshipful Company of Tylers and Bricklayers
  38. Worshipful Company of Bowyers
  39. Worshipful Company of Fletchers
  40. Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths
  41. Worshipful Company of Joiners and Ceilers
  42. Worshipful Company of Weavers
  43. Worshipful Company of Woolmen
  44. Worshipful Company of Scriveners
  45. Worshipful Company of Fruiterers
  46. Worshipful Company of Plaisterers
  47. Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers
  48. Worshipful Company of Broderers
  49. Worshipful Company of Upholders
  50. Worshipful Company of Musicians
  51. Worshipful Company of Turners
  52. Worshipful Company of Basketmakers
  53. Worshipful Company of Glaziers and Painters of Glass
  54. Worshipful Company of Horners
  55. Worshipful Company of Farriers
  56. Worshipful Company of Paviors
  57. Worshipful Company of Loriners
  58. Worshipful Society of Apothecaries
  59. Worshipful Company of Shipwrights
  60. Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers
  61. Worshipful Company of Clockmakers
  62. Worshipful Company of Glovers
  63. Worshipful Company of Feltmakers
  64. Worshipful Company of Framework Knitters
  65. Worshipful Company of Needlemakers
  66. Worshipful Company of Gardeners
  67. Worshipful Company of Tin Plate Workers alias Wire Workers
  68. Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights
  69. Worshipful Company of Distillers
  70. Worshipful Company of Pattenmakers
  71. Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers
  72. Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers
  73. Worshipful Company of Gunmakers
  74. Worshipful Company of Gold and Silver Wyre Drawers
  75. Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards
  76. Worshipful Company of Fanmakers
  77. Worshipful Company of Carmen
  78. Honourable Company of Master Mariners
  79. City of London Solicitors' Company
  80. Worshipful Company of Farmers
  81. Honourable Company of Air Pilots
  82. Worshipful Company of Tobacco Pipe Makers and Tobacco Blenders
  83. Worshipful Company of Furniture Makers
  84. Worshipful Company of Scientific Instrument Makers
  85. Worshipful Company of Chartered Surveyors
  86. Worshipful Company of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales
  87. Worshipful Company of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators
  88. Worshipful Company of Builders Merchants
  89. Worshipful Company of Launderers
  90. Worshipful Company of Marketors
  91. Worshipful Company of Actuaries
  92. Worshipful Company of Insurers
  93. Worshipful Company of Arbitrators
  94. Worshipful Company of Engineers
  95. Worshipful Company of Fuellers
  96. Worshipful Company of Lightmongers
  97. Worshipful Company of Environmental Cleaners
  98. Worshipful Company of Chartered Architects
  99. Worshipful Company of Constructors
  100. Worshipful Company of Information Technologists
  101. Worshipful Company of World Traders
  102. Worshipful Company of Water Conservators
  103. Worshipful Company of Firefighters
  104. Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers
  105. Worshipful Company of Management Consultants
  106. Worshipful Company of International Bankers
  107. Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers
  108. Worshipful Company of Security Professionals
  109. Worshipful Company of Educators
  110. Worshipful Company of Arts Scholars
Note: *The Skinners' and Merchant Taylors' Companies alternate their precedence each year.

Coats of arms

Type of business
Date of establishment;
Order of precedence
Image of armsBlazon
Worshipful Company of Mercers


Gules, issuant from a bank of clouds a figure of the Virgin couped at the shoulders proper vested in a crimson robe adorned with gold, the neck encircled by a jeweled necklace crined or and wreathed about the temples with a chaplet of roses alternately argent and of the first, and crowned with a celestial crown, the whole within a bordure of clouds also proper.
Worshipful Company of Grocers


Argent, a chevron gules between nine cloves six in chief and three in base proper
Worshipful Company of Drapers


Azure, three clouds radiated proper each adorned with a triple crown or
Worshipful Company of Fishmongers


Azure, three dolphins embowed in pale between two pairs of sea luces saltirewise proper crowned or on a chief gules six keys in three saltires ward ends upwards of the second
Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths


Quarterly gules and azure, in the first and fourth quarters a leopard's face or in the second and third quarters a covered cup and in chief two round buckles the tongues fesse-wise, points to the dexter all of the third
Worshipful Company of Skinners


Ermine, on a chief gules three crowns or with caps of the field
Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors


Argent, a royal tent between two parliament robes gules lined ermine the tent garnished or with pennon and flagstaff of the last on a chief azure a lion passant guardant or
Worshipful Company of Haberdashers


Barry nebulée of six argent and azure, on a bend gules a lion passant guardant or
Worshipful Company of Salters


Per chevron azure and gules, three covered salts argent garnished or overflowing of the third

City companies without grant of livery

Companies without Livery is a status which applies during the period between when a Guild is recognised by the Court of Aldermen and when it is granted the rights of a livery. A guild initially applies to be a London Guild, and may later apply to the Court to become A Company of the City of London. After an indefinite period, such A Company of the City of London can apply to the Aldermen for livery status; if granted, they can thereafter use the honorific prefix Worshipful Company.

Guilds and companies aiming to obtain the grant of Livery

Neither the Company of Parish Clerks nor the Company of Watermen have applied or intend to apply for livery status, which remains a long-standing City tradition. This is granted by the City Corporation in effect to control a company. The Watermen and Parish Clerks are governed by statutes and Royal Charters with responsibilities outside the City. The Company of Watermen and Lightermen was established by Act of Parliament in 1555 to regulate the watermen on the River Thames responsible for the movement of goods and passengers and remains the only ancient City Guild to be formed and governed by Act of Parliament. They are then strictly not 'Companies without Livery' at all but simply 'companies'.
The City Livery Club, The Guild of Young Freemen and the Guild of Freemen of the City of London, whilst not being livery companies, are popular clubs amongst the City fraternity.

The Southwark Manors

The City Corporation of London remains lord of three manors at Southwark. These are membership organisations for those areas which are the jurors of their manorial courts. They are not in any way Guilds as are not related to trading and occupational activities. These courts retain legal-standing under the Administration of Justice Act 1977.