An official is someone who holds an office in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority,. A government official or functionary is an official who is involved in public administration or government, through either election, appointment, selection, or employment. A bureaucrat or civil servant is a member of the bureaucracy. An elected official is a person who is an official by virtue of an election. Officials may also be appointed ex officio. Some official positions may be inherited. A person who currently holds an office is referred to as an incumbent. The word official as a noun has been recorded since the Middle English period, first seen in 1314. It comes from the Old Frenchofficial, from the Latinofficialis, the noun use of the original adjectiveofficialis from officium. The meaning "person in charge of some public work or duty" was first recorded in 1555. The adjective is first attested in English in 1533 via the Old French oficial. The informal term officialese, the jargon of "officialdom", was first recorded in 1884.
An officialis was the official term for any member of the officium of a high dignitary such as a governor.
In sports, the term official is used to describe a person enforcing playing in the capacity of a linesman, referee and umpire; also specified by the discipline, e.g. American football official, ice hockey official. An official competition is created or recognized as valid by the competent body, is agreed to or arranged by people in positions of authority. Is synonymous, among others, with approved, certified, recognized, endorsed, legitimate.
The term officer is close to being a synonym. A functionary is someone who carries out a particular role within an organization; this again is quite a close synonym for official, as a noun, but with connotations closer to bureaucrat. Any such person acts in their official capacity, in carrying out the duties of their office; they are also said to officiate, for example in a ceremony. A public official is an official of central or local government.
they are personally free and appointed to their position on the basis of conduct
he exercises the authority delegated to them in accordance with impersonal rules, and their loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution of their official duties
their appointment and job placement are dependent upon their technical qualifications
their administrative work is a full-time occupation
their work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career.
An official must exercise their judgment and their skills, but their duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority; ultimately they are responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice their personal judgment if it runs counter to their official duties.
As an adjective, "official" often, but not always, means pertaining to the government, as state employee or having state recognition, or analogous to governance or to a formal proceeding as opposed to informal business. In summary that has authenticity emanates from an authority. Some examples:
An official history, for example of an institution or business, or particularly of a war or military unit, is a history written as a commission, with the assumption of co-operation with access to records and archives; but without necessarily full editorial independence.
An official biography is usually on the same lines, written with access to private papers and the support of the family of the subject.