Working titles are used primarily for two reasons – the first being that an official title has not yet been decided upon, with the working title being used purely for identification purposes, and the second being a ruse to intentionally disguise the real nature of a project. Examples of the former include the film Die Hard with a Vengeance, which was filmed under the title Die Hard: New York, and the James Bond films, which are commonly produced under numerical titles such as Bond 22, until an official title is announced. A notable example is Disney's The Emperor's New Groove, whose working title is Kingdom of the Sun, with an alternate plotline. Examples of the latter include Jurassic World, produced under Ebb Tide, Return of the Jedi, which was produced under the title Blue Harvest, 2009's Star Trek, which was produced under the title Corporate Headquarters, and the Batman films Batman Returns, Batman Forever, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight and The Dark Knight Rises, which were produced under the titles Blinko, Dictel, The Intimidation Game, Rory's First Kiss, and Magnus Rex, respectively. In 2009, the video game Rock Band Network was produced under the code nameRock Band: Nickelback. In some cases a working title may ultimately be used as the official title, as in the case of the films Cloverfield, Project X, High School Musical, and Snakes on a Plane, the television showsThe Mindy Project and The Cleveland Show, and video games Quake II, Spore, ' and Epic Mickey. Films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe have been under very inconspicuous titles to prevent spoilers from leaking.
Rasputin for Iron Man 2 and Caged Heat for Iron Man 3
FrostBite, Freezer Burn and Sputnik for
', ' and '
Group Hug for The Avengers, After Party for ', and Mary Lou and Mary Lou 2 for ' and '
Thursday Mourning for ' and Creature Report for '
Full Tilt for Guardians of the Galaxy and Level Up for Vol. 2
Bigfoot for Ant-Man and Cherry Blue for Ant-Man and the Wasp
Checkmate for Doctor Strange, referring to a fictional film in Seinfeld
Sack Lunch for The Eternals, also referencing a fictional Seinfeld movie
' masqueraded as Summer of George, a reference to the Seinfeld episode, and subsequently used Fall of George.
Motherland for Black Panther
Open World for Captain Marvel
A title ruse is a practice by which a high-profile film or television series is given a fake working title to keep its production a secret, and to prevent price gouging by suppliers, casual theft and undesirable attention. Purchase orders from vendors, outdoor signs, videocassettes and DVD labels will use the cover title of a film.