Theatre in the round
A theatre in the round, arena theatre or central staging is a space for theatre in which the audience surrounds the stage.
Theatre-in-the-round was common in ancient theatre, particularly that of Greece and Rome, but was not widely explored again until the latter half of the 20th century.
The Glenn Hughes Penthouse Theatre in Seattle, Washington was the first theatre-in-the-round venue built in the United States. It first opened on May 19, 1940 with a production of Spring Dance, a comedy by playwright Philip Barry. The 160-seat theatre is located on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1947, Margo Jones established America's first professional theatre-in-the-round company when she opened her Theater '47 in Dallas.
The stage design as developed by Margo Jones was used by directors in later years for such well-known shows as the Tony Award-winning musical Fun Home, the original stage production of Man of La Mancha, and all plays staged at the ANTA Washington Square Theatre, including Arthur Miller's autobiographical After the Fall. Such theatres had previously existed in colleges, but not in professional spaces for almost two millennia. It is also a popular setup used in contemporary pop concerts in an arena or stadium setting.
Configuration of the stageThe stage is always in the centre with the audience arranged on all sides, and is most commonly rectangular, circular, diamond, or triangular. Actors may enter and exit through the audience from different directions or from below the stage. The stage is usually on an even level with or below the audience in a "pit" or "arena" formation.
This configuration lends itself to high-energy productions and anything that requires audience participation. It is favoured by producers of classical theatre and it has continued as a creative alternative to the more common proscenium format.
In effect, theatre-in-the-round removes the fourth wall and brings the actor into the same space as the audience. This is often problematic for proscenium or end stage trained actors who are taught that they must never turn their backs to the audience, something that is unavoidable in this format. However, it allows for strong and direct engagement with the audience.
It is also employed when theatrical performances are presented in non-traditional spaces such as restaurants, public areas such as fairs or festivals, or street theater. Set design is often minimal in order not to obscure the audience's view of the performance.
History of theatre-in-the-roundTheatre-in-the-round was common in ancient theatre, particularly that of Greece and Rome, but was not widely explored again until the latter half of the 20th century.
In Margo Jones' survey of theatre-in-the-round, the first two sources of central staging in the United States she identified were the productions by Azubah Latham and Milton Smith at Columbia University dating from 1914, and T. Earl Pardoe's productions at Brigham Young University in 1922.
In 1924, Gilmore Brown founded the Fair Oaks Playbox in Pasadena, California, an important early practitioner of central staging in addition to other stage configurations that it pioneered in its advent of flexible staging. As Indicated by Jones, the centrally staged productions of the Fair-oaks Play box were followed approximately eight years later by the work of Glenn Hughes in his Seattle Penthouse.
Stephen Joseph was the first to populise the form in the United Kingdom from the US in the 1950s and set up theatres-in-the-round in Newcastle-under-Lyme and the Studio Theatre in Scarborough. The current theatre, opened in 1996, is known as the Stephen Joseph Theatre. Joseph was reputed to have once rhetorically asked, "Why must authorities stand with their back to a wall?" His answer was: "So nobody can knife them from behind."
Sam Walters set up an impromptu performance space in the upstairs of the Orange Tree pub in Richmond, London in the early 1970s and subsequently moved across the road to a permanent Orange Tree Theatre.
In 1972, RG Gregory set up the Word and Action theatre company in Dorset in England to work exclusively in theatre-in-the-round. Gregory sought to create a grammar that would enable actors to maximise the form's potential for connecting with the audience both as individuals and as a collective. All Word and Action productions were performed in normal lighting conditions, without costumes or makeup.
Uses in television and concert hallsThe innovations of Margo Jones were an obvious influence on Albert McCleery when he created his Cameo Theatre for television in 1950. Continuing until 1955, McCleery offered dramas seen against pure black backgrounds instead of walls of a set. This enabled cameras in the darkness to pick up shots from any position.
Richard Nixon's 1968 U.S. Presidential campaign staged nine live televised question and answer sessions using a ground-breaking theatre-in-the-round format, adapted for a live televised audience. The first time use of the staging device was memorialized in the book, The Selling of the President 1968 by Joe McGinniss. The producer of these Nixon "Man in the Arena" programs was Roger Ailes, who later went to on start FOX News. Ailes' innovation of the theatre-in-the-round format for candidate forums became the blueprint for modern "town hall" candidate formats and even multiple-candidate debates.
Elvis Presley's '68 Comeback Special TV program was performed with the musicians seated using a raised staging in-the-round format.
When an arena staging was conceived for the progressive-rock group Yes by their tour manager Jim Halley in the mid-1970s, it prompted a redesign of rock concerts and venue seating arrangements.
The politics of the roundThe politics of theatre-in-the-round were explored most deliberately by RG Gregory. In his view the lit space of a proscenium arch is analogous to the seat of power; the audience adopts the role of passive receivers. In traditional theatre design, maximum care is taken with sight lines in order to ensure that the actor can engage every member of the audience at the same time.
However, once removed from the picture frame of the arch, the actors are compelled to turn their back on some members of the audience and so necessarily lose exclusive command of the acting space. All members of the audience can see the actor, but the actor can no longer see all of them. At this point, in order for the play to function, the audience themselves must be allowed to become key conductors of the meaning of the performance.
Some, like the writer Mick Fealty, have stressed a close analogy between Gregory's description of the rudimentary dynamics of theater-in-the-round with the network effect of Internet-based communication in comparison to traditional broadcast and marketing channels.
Arena stage archivein Fairfax, Virginia is home to the largest arena stage archive and contains material from the theatre's 50-year history. Included in the collection are photographs, production notebooks, scrapbooks, playbills, oral histories and handwritten correspondence. According to their website, the total volume is or linear and is housed in the Fenwick Library.
Theatres in the round
- La Boite Theatre Building, Brisbane
- Roundhouse Theatre, Brisbane
- Globe Theatre, Regina, Saskatchewan
- Seton Auditorium, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
- :fr:L'Européen|L'Européen, Paris
- :fr:Théâtre en Rond |Théâtre en Rond, Sassenage and Fresnes
- Theater in the Wild, Hong Kong Disneyland, Lantau Island
- , Tokyo Disney Resort, Urayasu, Chiba
- Saint James Cavalier Theatre, Valletta
- Theater Scena STU, Kraków
- Cockpit Theatre, Marylebone
- Orange Tree Theatre, Richmond
- Pembroke Theatre, Croydon
- Octagon Theatre, Bolton
- Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester
- Blue Orange Theatre, Birmingham
- The Castle Theatre, Wellingborough
- New Vic Theatre, Newcastle-under-Lyme
- The Round, Newcastle upon Tyne
- Stephen Joseph Theatre, Scarborough
- The Dukes, Lancaster
- Everyman Theatre, Liverpool
- Pyramid Theatre, Leeds University Union, Leeds
- NAU Theatre, Flagstaff, Arizona
- Celebrity Theatre, Phoenix, Arizona
- Hale Centre Theatre, Gilbert, Arizona
- Theater Works, Peoria, Arizona
- Wells Fargo Pavilion, Sacramento, California
- , Anaheim, California
- , Glendale, California
- Golden Bough Playhouse, Carmel-by-the-Sea, California
- Marian Theatre, Santa Maria, California
- Old Globe Theatre, San Diego, California
- *Cassius Carter Centre Stage
- *Cheryl and Harvey White Theatre
- Circle Star Theater, San Carlos, California
- Riverside Community Players, Riverside, California
- Valley Music Theater, Los Angeles, California
- Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, Disneyland, Anaheim, California
- The Space Theatre, Denver, Colorado
District of Columbia
- Arena Stage, Washington, D.C.
- Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, Magic Kingdom, Bay Lake, Florida
- Stitch's Great Escape!, Magic Kingdom, Bay Lake, Florida
- Festival of the Lion King, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Lake Buena Vista, Florida
- Marriott Theatre, Lincolnshire, Illinois
- Mill Run Playhouse, Niles, Illinois
- Richmond Hill Theatre, Geneseo, Illinois
- Cornstock Theatre, Peoria, Illinois
- Wagon Wheel Theatre, Warsaw, Indiana
- Flanagan Studio Theater, Grinnell, Iowa
- Mark A. Chapman Theatre, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
- Colonial Players, Annapolis, Maryland
- Shady Grove Music Fair, Gaithersburg, Maryland
- Painters Mill Music Fair, Owings Mills, Maryland
- North Shore Music Theatre, Beverly, Massachusetts
- Cape Cod Melody Tent, Hyannis, Massachusetts
- South Shore Music Circus, Cohasset, Massachusetts
- The Little Theatre, Newton
- Balch Arena Theater, Medford, Massachusetts
- Theatre in the Round Players, Minneapolis, Minnesota
- Rarig Center Arena, Minneapolis, Minnesota
- Arena Theater, Northfield, Minnesota
- Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts, Kansas City, Missouri
- Le Rêve Theater inside Wynn Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada
- LOVE Theatre inside The Mirage, Las Vegas, Nevada
- Seton Hall Theatre in the Round, South Orange, New Jersey
- Circle Repertory Company, New York City, New York
- The Irish Classical Theatre in Buffalo, New York
- NYCB Theatre at Westbury, Westbury, New York
- Circle in the Square Theatre in New York City, New York
- Arena Theatre at University at Albany, SUNY in Albany, New York
- The Front Row, Highland Heights, Ohio
- Porthouse Theatre, Kent, Ohio
- The New Theater, Ashland, Oregon
- F. Otto Haas Stage, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Valley Forge Music Fair, Devon, Pennsylvania
- Longstreet Theatre, Columbia, South Carolina
- Ula Love Doughty Carousel Theatre, Knoxville, Tennessee
- Plaza Theatre Company, Cleburne, Texas
- Artisan Center Theater, Hurst
- Whisenhunt Stage, Austin, Texas
- Casa Mañana, Fort Worth, Texas
- Theatre '47, Dallas, Texas
- Mary Moody Northen Theatre, Austin, Texas
- Arena Theater, Houston, Texas
- Hale Centre Theatre, Sandy, Utah
- , West Valley City, Utah
- The Barksdale Theater in Richmond, Virginia
- Glenn Hughes Penthouse Theatre, Seattle, Washington
- ACT Theatre, Seattle, Washington
- Fireside Dinner Theater, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin
In popular culture
- In the novel The Prestige by Christopher Priest, the magician Rupert Angier courts controversy by writing that stage magic should be performed "in the round" rather than in theatres with a proscenium arch.
- The English progressive rock band Yes were the first rock-era group to perform "in the round" during their 1978–79 Tormato tour. The band also performed using a round, rotating stage during portions of their Drama and Union tours in 1980 and 1991, respectively.
- The second tour of the global country-pop superstar Shania Twain, the Up! Tour, had a stage configuration in the style of "in the round". The tour was one of the most successful tours of 2004, and served to promote the RIAA diamond certified album, "Up!".
- The Into the Millennium Tour of the American boy band Backstreet Boys also featured an "in the round" stage. The tour started in 1999 and ended in March 2000. The tour is one of the most successful tours of all time.
- British rock band Def Leppard played "in the round" for several tours in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Their 1989 live VHS release was entitled '.
- In order to give a show similar to a three ring circus, American singer Britney Spears used an in-the-round setting for her 2009 The Circus Starring Britney Spears tour.
- Stand-up comedians have performed specials "in the round," such as ' and Louis C.K.'s Oh My God.
- The Spice Girls used a circular stage in the round setting for their Christmas in Spiceworld tour in 1999.
- U2's 360° Tour uses a very large circular stage structure.
- The Dixie Chicks' Top of the World Tour used a circular stage, except in venues where it was an end stage.
- Metallica have been known to use a rectangular, diamond or oval shaped stage that is placed in the center of the arena beginning with their 1991 Wherever We May Roam Tour. On different tours, they have also included areas within the stage, called "the snake pit", where audience members can watch the show. Most recently, their 2012 European Black Album Tour used this format.
- In a Curb Your Enthusiasm season finale, Larry David, while playing The Producers character Max Bialystock, said he invented "theater in the square".