Migrant crisis

Migrant crisis is the intense difficulty, trouble, or danger situation in the receiving state due to the movements of large groups of immigrants escaping from the conditions which negatively affected their situation at the country of origin. The “crisis” situation is not the refugee numbers but the system’s failure to respond in an orderly way in the government’s legal obligations. Some notable crisis are; European migrant crisis, English Channel migrant crisis and World War II evacuation and expulsion.
Refugee crisis refer to movements of "large" groups of displaced people which may or may not involve a migrant crisis. USA government’s legal obligations inadvertently created 2014 American immigration crisis. Crisis developed because of unaccompanied children who does not have a legal guardian to provide physical custody and care quickly overwhelmed the "local border patrols" creating a migrant crisis. : The "refugee crisis" is a humanitarian one for those adopting the "Push" factors as main cause, while they acknowledge that reasons for migration may be mixed, even the refugees as weapons. For those focusing on "Pull" factors, the "migration crisis" has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as not sufficiently strict, severe, or careful by potential migrants. Compared to refugee crisis, migrant crises also have a separate or distinguish between the “deserving” refugee from the “undeserving” migrant and play into fear of cultural, religious, and ethnic difference in the midst of increasing intense, excessive, and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations and lacking in predictability, job security, material or psychological welfare for many in Europe.
"Migrant crisis management" involves dealing with issues before, during, and after they have occurred. This is an area which Global Crisis Centre of PricewaterhouseCoopers works by developing outlines on roles, opportunities and challenges faced by governments and private sector actors in addressing migration crisis through the 'push' and 'pull' factors that influence migration. According to Global Crisis Centre, migrant crisis management is shaped using the definitions and responsibilities outlined in the UN’s Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and subsequent Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and international solidarity and burden-sharing with collaboration, communication and information dissemination, which are absolutely necessary for solving migratory issues of the world.

Crisis management

Immigrant receiving states need effective management strategies at achieving a set of tasks for responding to the threat to re-establish a perceived normalcy.
"Transboundary crisis management" involves co-decision, shared procedures and collective instruments in aligened with the steps below:
Management of the crisis shows succession of four scenarios.
  1. Libya let the flow of irregular migrants. EU Commission approve "Communication on Global Approach to Migration and Mobility".
  2. The Italy's humanitarian Operation Mare Nostrum.
  3. The EU recognize humanitarian and migratory pressures shelves GAMM and develops another comprehensive approach
  4. Migrants and refugees: the European Council secure the borders against the unwanted migrants and refugees.

    Role of NGO

Institution that works in this area is the Migration Policy Institute. Global Crisis Centre of PricewaterhouseCoopers works on migrant crisis management.

Crisis and immigration system

Broken immigration system is what immigration experts and lawyers refer to as failure in management of "push and pull factors." Push forces for the displaced people are summarized as running from horrors and poverty in the departure country toward a broken immigration system in the receiving states. Pull forces are receiving states having a functioning economy, the safer-faster journey with the help of communication technology and established smuggler networks which has safer-faster ways to move people. For a full description Human migration#Lee. The condition of refugee or asylum seekers in receiving countries, from the perspective of governments, employers, and citizens, is a topic of continual debate, and on the other end, the violation of migrant human rights is an ongoing crisis.

Immigration reform

According to Salil Shetty, Secretary General of Amnesty International, Immigration reform is the solution to "Migrant crisis" through implementing procedure or protocols to manage push and pull factors.

Crisis and resource management

Broken resource management toward the immigrants is part of the inability to develop efficient responses to people in need, causing crisis. The asylum offices in USA, United Kingdom and Australia manages the immigration services.


During 2014 American immigration crisis, immigration courts as well as the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services asylum system are completely under-resourced and confronting an unmanageable caseload. In June, 2019, more than 350 "unaccompanied children" have been removed from a holding facility in Texas to bring it into compliance as designed to hold around 120.
Resource management towards the immigrants in USA includes "private sector" involvement as listed in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Law mandates that all companies must help the federal government. Specific immigration areas where human resource managers must ensure compliance by meeting the legal requirements of this immigration reform regulation by incorporating the Immigration and Naturalization Services Form I-9 into their hiring processes.
Another case for resource management for migrant crisis is the Trump wall, which is a colloquial name for President Trump's solution to immigration. President Trump signed Executive Order 13767, which formally directed the US government to begin attempting wall construction. Executive Order 13767 followed with the 2018 federal government shutdown because of presidential veto on any spending bill that did not include "resource" on wall funding. In February 2019, Trump signed a Declaration of National Emergency, saying situation is a "crisis," officially declaring a "Migrant Crisis" in the Mexico–United States border.


The financial burden of crises: Germany allocated roughly 10 billion Euros for the cost of refugee care and acceptance in 2015. On the other hand Greece was exempt to pay from EU-wide refugee sharing initiatives between 2013 and 2015.


Resource management toward the immigrants in UK managed under National Asylum Support Service which is tasked with the responsibility for regulating entry to, and settlement in the interests of sustainable growth and social inclusion. NASS is a section of the UK Visas and Immigration division of the Home Office which support "otherwise be destitute." Provision of accommodation is part of the process.

List of migrant crises