Migrant crisis is the intense difficulty, trouble, or danger situation in the receiving state due to the movements of large groups of immigrants escaping from the conditions which negatively affected their situation at the country of origin. The “crisis” situation is not the refugee numbers but the system’s failure to respond in an orderly way in the government’s legal obligations. Some notable crisis are; European migrant crisis, English Channel migrant crisis and World War II evacuation and expulsion. Refugee crisis refer to movements of "large" groups of displaced people which may or may not involve a migrant crisis. USA government’s legal obligations inadvertently created 2014 American immigration crisis. Crisis developed because of unaccompanied children who does not have a legal guardian to provide physical custody and care quickly overwhelmed the "local border patrols" creating a migrant crisis. : The "refugee crisis" is a humanitarian one for those adopting the "Push" factors as main cause, while they acknowledge that reasons for migration may be mixed, even the refugees as weapons. For those focusing on "Pull" factors, the "migration crisis" has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as not sufficiently strict, severe, or careful by potential migrants. Compared to refugee crisis, migrant crises also have a separate or distinguish between the “deserving” refugee from the “undeserving” migrant and play into fear of cultural, religious, and ethnic difference in the midst of increasing intense, excessive, and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations and lacking in predictability, job security, material or psychological welfare for many in Europe. "Migrant crisis management" involves dealing with issues before, during, and after they have occurred. This is an area which Global Crisis Centre of PricewaterhouseCoopers works by developing outlines on roles, opportunities and challenges faced by governments and private sector actors in addressing migration crisis through the 'push' and 'pull' factors that influence migration. According to Global Crisis Centre, migrant crisis management is shaped using the definitions and responsibilities outlined in the UN’s Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and subsequent Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and international solidarity and burden-sharing with collaboration, communication and information dissemination, which are absolutely necessary for solving migratory issues of the world.
Immigrant receiving states need effective management strategies at achieving a set of tasks for responding to the threat to re-establish a perceived normalcy. "Transboundary crisis management" involves co-decision, shared procedures and collective instruments in aligened with the steps below:
Detection: Recognition of threat.
Sense-making: critical information for picture of the situation.
Decision-making: formulation of an effective strategy
Coordination: collaboration between key partners.
Meaning-making: Messaging on the path taken.
Communication: message delivery.
Accountability: Production of documents that list the decisions and strategies.
European migrant crisis
Management of the crisis shows succession of four scenarios.
Libya let the flow of irregular migrants. EU Commission approve "Communication on Global Approach to Migration and Mobility".
The EU recognize humanitarian and migratory pressures shelves GAMM and develops another comprehensive approach
Migrants and refugees: the European Council secure the borders against the unwanted migrants and refugees.
Role of NGO
Institution that works in this area is the Migration Policy Institute. Global Crisis Centre of PricewaterhouseCoopers works on migrant crisis management.
Crisis and immigration system
Broken immigration system is what immigration experts and lawyers refer to as failure in management of "push and pull factors." Push forces for the displaced people are summarized as running from horrors and poverty in the departure country toward a broken immigration system in the receiving states. Pull forces are receiving states having a functioning economy, the safer-faster journey with the help of communication technology and established smuggler networks which has safer-faster ways to move people. For a full description Human migration#Lee. The condition of refugee or asylum seekers in receiving countries, from the perspective of governments, employers, and citizens, is a topic of continual debate, and on the other end, the violation of migrant human rights is an ongoing crisis.
Broken resource management toward the immigrants is part of the inability to develop efficient responses to people in need, causing crisis. The asylum offices in USA, United Kingdom and Australia manages the immigration services.
The financial burden of crises: Germany allocated roughly 10 billion Euros for the cost of refugee care and acceptance in 2015. On the other hand Greece was exempt to pay from EU-wide refugee sharing initiatives between 2013 and 2015.