13th century

The 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar.
The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan, which stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe. Conquests of Hulagu Khan and other Mongol invasions changed the course of the Muslim world, most notably the Siege of Baghdad, the destruction of the House of Wisdom and the weakening of the Mamluks and Rums, which according to historians caused the decline of the Islamic Golden Age. Other Muslim powers such as the Mali Empire and Delhi Sultanate conquered large parts of Western Africa and the Indian subcontinent, while Buddhism witnessed a decline. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages.


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Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238, Song dynasty.
. As duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king.