Culture of Saudi Arabia
The cultural setting of Saudi Arabia is greatly influenced by the Arab and Islamic culture. The society is in general deeply religious, conservative, traditional, and family-oriented. Many attitudes and traditions are centuries-old, derived from Arab civilization and Islamic heritage. However, its culture has also been affected by rapid change, as the country was transformed from an impoverished nomadic society into a rich commodity producer in just a few years in the 1970s. This change has also been affected by a number of factors including the communications revolution and external scholarships. The most recent ruler or king of Saudi is King Salman of Saudi Arabia.
The Wahhabi Islamic movement, which arose in the 18th century and is sometimes described as austerely puritanical, now predominates in the country. Following the principle of "enjoining good and forbidding wrong", there are many limitations and prohibitions on behavior and dress which are strictly enforced both legally and socially, often more so than in other Muslim countries. However, many of the traditional restrictions have been lifting recently by the government including allowing women to drive and many other female-related issues. On the other hand, the things prohibited by Islam are banned in the country, for example, alcoholic beverages are strictly prohibited.
Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Five times each day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques scattered throughout the country. Because Friday is the holiest day for Muslims, the weekend is Friday-Saturday. In accordance with Wahhabi doctrine, only two religious holidays, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, were publicly recognized, until 2006 when a non-religious holiday, the September 23 national holiday was reintroduced. In terms of gender relations, Saudi Arabia's norms usually discourage non-familial free mixing between the sexes.
ReligionThe land of Hijaz, particularly Makkah and Madinah, is the place where Islam was firstly established. Thus, the majority of its population are Muslims. Moreover, Qur’an is considered the constitution of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic law "sharia’" is the main legal source. In Saudi Arabia, Islam is not just adhered politically by the government but also it has a great influence on the people's culture and everyday life.
Religious demography85 to 90% of the Saudi citizens are Sunni Muslims while 10 to 15% belong to Shia's school. 80% of Shia’ are twelvers who live in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and Madinah. In Najran Province there are approximately 700,000 seveners Shia’. Moreover, the majority of expatriate in Saudi Arabia are Muslims.
Islamic rituals in the communityUnlike many other Muslim countries, Saudi Arabia has been following a strict version of Islam where for example, men and women are segregated in universities. Another example of the strict adherence to Islamic values can be seen in women who are required to wear the traditional ”abaya”. However, women are no longer required to wear abayas in public but are required to dress modestly as a form of respecting the Saudi culture. Additionally, Saudi Arabia is the only Muslim country where shops and other public facilities are required to close during prayer time which takes place five times a day and employees and customers are sent off to pray. Thus, the "religious police", who patrol the streets "enjoining good and forbidding wrong" by enforcing dress codes, strict separation of men and women, attendance at prayer five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia or behavior it believes to be commanded by Islam. Cinema theatres were shut down in 1980, for example. However, Saudi Arabia has reopened cinema theaters since April 2018.
CalendarThe kingdom uses not the international Gregorian calendar, but the lunar Islamic calendar, with the start of each lunar month determined not ahead of time by astronomical calculation, but only after the crescent moon is sighted by the proper religious authorities. Civil workers in the governmental sector used to receive their salaries not according to the international Gregorian calendar, but the lunar Islamic calendar. However, the Gregorian calendar has been followed by many international companies operating in the country. Moreover, by 2016, a number of reforms took place in Saudi Arabia. One of them was to used to Gregorian calendar to pay for the civil servants. This measure has been taken to reduce the governmental spending as employees have lost 11 payment days.
Friday is the holiest day for Muslims. Thus, the weekend in Saudi Arabia was Thursday-Friday. In 2013, the late King Abdullah Al-Saud issued a royal decree switching the weekend to become on Friday-Saturday. This step was taken to reduce the adverse effects suffered by Saudi businesses due to the difference in weekdays and weekends between Saudi Arabia and the other regional and international counterparts. Like all other Muslims, on Fridays Saudis attend Jomua’h prayer that is held by afternoon and accompanied with a sermon.
The holy month of Ramadan
Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is a holy month for all Muslims. In Saudi Arabia, this month is especially important and different as the lifestyle of the people gets more spiritual. During the month, Muslims fast from dawn to dusk. Thus, in Saudi Arabia, the working hours are reduced as most of the employees go two hours later than usual. Moreover, friends and families gather by sunset to enjoy breaking their fast together. By night and particularly after the obligatory Isha’ prayer, people stay in mosques to pray the voluntary prayer of Taraweeh. Before the dawn prayer, Fajr, families wake up to eat Suhur, their last meal before they start fasting.
Saudi Arabia celebrates two public holidays, namely, ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. Id al-Fitr comes after the holy month of Ramadan and employees enjoy a customary 5 to 10 days away from work. Id al-Adha comes by the end of Hajj -pilgrimage- and employees get similar off days. However, some other religious days that are considered as public holidays in other Muslim countries are not given days off in Saudi Arabia including, the Islamic New Year, Mawlid Alnabi -Prophet Muhammad's Birthday- and ‘Ashura day.
"Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money, female education, and television and the abolition of slavery. There were a number of terrorist attacks targeting foreigners between 2001 and 2004, but these have been brought under control.
Public support for the traditional political/religious structure of the kingdom is so strong that one researcher interviewing Saudis found virtually no support for reforms to secularize the state. Even the small minority of Westernized and liberal Saudis expressed "a desire for the kingdom to remain a Muslim society ruled by an overtly Muslim state."
Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression or buildings but annual festivals such as the Janadriah Festival which celebrates Saudi Culture, custom and handicraft held in a specialized arena just north of Riyadh and public events such as The Annual Book Fair are open to the public and are very popular although policed by the religious police.
The festivals and communal public worship of Shia Muslims who make up an estimated 10-15% are suppressed. Celebration of other Islamic holidays, such as the Muhammad's birthday and the Day of Ashura, are tolerated only when celebrated locally and on a small scale. Shia also face systematic discrimination in employment, education, the justice system according to Human Rights Watch.
No churches, temples or other non-Muslim houses of worship permitted in the country. Foreign workers are not allowed to celebrate Christmas or Easter, and reportedly private prayer services are forbidden in practice.
And at least one religious minority, the Ahmadiyya, are banned with adherents being deported according to a 2007 report by Human Rights Watch.
Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal. According to the HeartCry Missionary Society, in 2014 the Saudi government "issued an official statement signifying that capital punishment may now be used" on those who distribute the Bible and all other "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam."
In legal compensation court cases non-Muslim are awarded less than Muslims. Atheists are legally designated as terrorists.
Social life and customsSaudi society lives within the circle of customs and traditions in which it was ingrained by the Arab culture of Islam and the Islamic culture, but the regions of the Kingdom differ from each other in the customs of clothing, food, dialects, songs, and even in marriage traditions, and the family in Saudi Arabia is the most important social institution, so the bonds are strong between their members Among them is the concept of obedience and mutual respect.
Al BadouA large portion of the original inhabitants of the area that is now Saudi were desert nomads known as Bedouin. They remain a significant and very influential minority of the indigenous Saudi population, though many who call themselves "bedou" no longer engage in "traditional tribal activities of herding sheep and riding camels." According to authors Harvey Tripp and Peter North, Bedouin make up most of the judiciary, religious leaders and National Guard of the country. Bedouin culture is "actively" preserved by the government.
GreetingsGreetings in Saudi Arabia have been called "formal and proscribed" and lengthy. Saudis tend "to take their time and converse for a bit when meeting." Inquiries "about health and family" are customary, but never about a man's wife, as this "is considered disrespectful."
Saudi men are known for the physical affection they express towards total strangers, thought by some to be a continuation of the desert tradition of offering strangers hospitality to ensure their survival.
DressThe religion and customs of Saudi Arabia dictate not only conservative dress for men and women, but a uniformity of dress unique to most of the Middle East. Traditionally, the different regions of Saudi have had different dress, but since the re-establishment of Saudi rule these have been reserved for festive occasions, and "altered if not entirely displaced" by the dress of the homeland of their rulers.
Many women normally wear an abaya, a long black cloak that covers all but the hands and face in public despite this not being required. Some Saudi women wear a full face veil, such as a niqāb or a burqa. Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. Saudi Arabia has recently relaxed the dress code for women.
In recent years it is common to wear Western dress underneath the abaya.
Saudi men and boys, whatever their job or social status, wear the traditional dress called a thobe or thawb, which has been called the "Arabic dress". During warm and hot weather, Saudi men and boys wear white thobes. During the cool weather, wool thobes in dark colors are not uncommon. At special times, men often wear a bisht or mishlah over the thobe. These are long white, brown or black cloaks trimmed in metallic thread. A man's headdress consists of three things: the tagia, a small white cap that keeps the gutra from slipping off the head; the gutra itself, which is a large square of cloth; and the igal, a doubled black cord that holds the gutra in place. Not wearing an igal is considered a sign of piety. The gutra is usually made of cotton and traditionally is either all white or a red and white checked. The gutra is worn folded into a triangle and centred on the head.
- Ghutrah is a traditional keffiyeh headdress worn by men in the Arabian peninsula. It is made of a square of usually finer cotton cloth, folded and wrapped in various styles around the head. It is commonly worn in areas with an arid climate, to provide protection from direct sun exposure, and also protection of the mouth and eyes from blown dust and sand.
- Agal is an item of Arab headgear constructed of cord which is fastened around the keffiyeh to hold it in place. The agal is usually black in colour.
- Thawb is the standard Arabic word for garment. It is ankle length, woven from wool or cotton, usually with long sleeves similar to a robe.
- Bisht is a traditional long, white, brown or black Arabic cloak trimmed in gold worn by men. It is usually only worn for prestige on special occasions such as weddings, or in chilly weather.
- Abaya is a women's garment. It is a black cloak which loosely covers the entire body except the head, although some Abayas cover the top of the head as well.
Traditional footwear has been leather sandals but most footwear is now imported. Saudi Arabia has recently relaxed the dress code for women.
WorkEmployment does not play the same part in native Saudi society as in some others. With enormous petroleum export earnings beginning in the mid-1970s the Saudi economy was not dependent on income from productive employment. Economists "estimate only 30–40 percent" of working-age Saudis "hold jobs or actively seek work," and most employed Saudis have less-than-demanding jobs with the government.
As of 2008, 90% of those employed in the private sector were foreigners, and several decades long efforts to replace significant numbers of them with Saudis have been unsuccessful.
One explanation for this culture of leisure is the hot, dry climate of the peninsula which allowed nomadic herding but permitted agriculture only in a small area. Like other nomadic herders worldwide, the ancestors of most Saudis did not develop the habits, skills, infrastructure, etc. of agricultural societies "that lead ultimately to present-day industrialisation". As a consequence, "Saudis have rarely worked in the sense that other nationalities have worked. No product-based commercial economy existed until oil" was discovered.
SocializingTraditionally social life in the kingdom has revolved around the home and family. Saudis regularly visit family members, particularly those of an older generation. For women, most of whom have their own jobs, it is routine to pay visits to each other during the day, though the ban on women driving can make transportation a problem. The ban was lifted in 2017.
For men, traditional hours involve a nap in late afternoon, and then socializing that begins after maghrib and can last until well after midnight. Men gather in groups of close friends of similar age, background, and occupation. Men typically relax, and joke while smoking shisha and playing balot, and have a meal around midnight before returning home. The groups may meet in diwaniyyas in each other's homes or a residence rented for the occasion.
FamiliesBeing part of a closed, family-oriented society, Saudis tend to prefer to do business with, socialize with, and communicate with family members rather than outsiders, be they foreigners, or Saudis from other clans. Extended families tend to live in family compounds in cities whenever possible and stay in contact by cellphone when not. It is customary for elder family member to use their influence for the benefit of family members, particularly for employment and advancement in the large Saudi government bureaucracy where most Saudis work.
MarriageTraditionally, in Saudi Arabia, families arrange marriages with the tribe or family's considerations in mind. Forced marriage has also taken place. Sons and daughters have been encouraged to "marry cousins or other relatives in order to increase and strengthen" the extended family or tribe,
"or occasionally to marry into another tribe in order to heal rifts". At least in the 1990s, most marriages in Saudi were "consanguineous"—i.e. between close relatives—sometimes a second cousin but usually a first cousin. and marriage between cousins in Saudi is among the highest rate in the world. The practice has been cited as a factor in higher rates of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and higher rates of severe genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis or a blood disorder,
thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, spinal muscular atrophy, deafness and muteness.
As a consequence of frequent consanguineous marriage, genetic counseling is a growing field in Saudi Arabia.
Traditionally men having more than one wife was "fairly common", but marriage has become increasingly monogamous as income has declined and western ideas of mutual compatibility between husband and wife have taken hold.
Steps of marriage
- Proposal: traditionally, the prospective groom's senior female leader informs the prospective bride's mother of his intentions... both families determine whether or not the marriage would be suitable.
- Viewing : if assent is given by the two families, the bride is "formally allowed to unveil in the presence of the future husband." This unveiling is delayed until the wedding party among very strict families.
- Marriage contract : if the viewing does not stop wedding plans, the amount of the dowery and other terms are negotiated by the prospective groom and the father of the prospective bride, and are executed usually by the imam of a mosque and witnessed by two male witnesses and recorded by a qadi. The mahr is much higher for a virgin than for a divorcee or widow. According to former diplomat Carol Fleming, as of 2008, a typical Saudi mahr was typically 70,000 SAR for a virgin and 20,000 SAR for a non-virgin.
- Meeting of the families : this is a "gala" party of both families, hosted by the bride's family, at which time the bridegroom presents the dowry and an engagement ring to the bride along with other gifts of jewelry.
- Betrothal : "setting the date" for the wedding parties is "considered the formal betrothal."
- Henna party or `Night of the Henna`: a party based around decorating the hands and feet of the bride with paste made from the henna plant, "a traditional wedding custom throughout the Arabian Peninsula" and elsewhere in the Muslim world.
- Wedding celebrations : usually comes six months to a year after the acceptance of the wedding proposal. The separate wedding celebrations for men and women are attended by family, close friends and distinguished guests. Traditionally they were held in homes, but today are usually held in large hotel ballrooms or special wedding halls. Each party usually consists of a large dinner featuring roast lamb or baby camel over rice or cracked wheat served on the floor, that begins after `Isha`. A traditional congratulatory phrase the guests tell the groom is 'from you the money; from her the children.' The men's party ends after the dinner, but the bridegroom and the male members of his and the bride's immediate family then go to the women's party. The women's party lasts longer than the men's, is more elaborately decorated, and in addition to food, has music, singing, and dancing. Around midnight, the bridegroom and the other family male members arrive and are announced amidst the ululation or zaghārīt of the women. The other men then leave, but the groom sits beside his bride on a dais while the party continues. Some wedding celebrations can go on for several days, but the groom need attend only the first night. After all the celebrations, the couple is traditionally escorted to their new home, or leave on their honeymoon. In some weddings, the couple meet for the first time on the final night of celebrations. On their return from the honeymoon if they have one, the couple either set up home with the groom's parents and "become members of the extended family or, as is increasingly the case, set up home by themselves".
DivorceSaudi Arabia allows the traditional practice of "triple talaq" divorce, where a man can divorce his wife simply by saying ‘I divorce you’ three times. He can rescind the divorce if this was done in the heat of the moment, but only if the wife agrees
Divorce for women who have been abandoned by their husbands in Saudi Arabia has been criticized for being slow.
Divorce initiated by a wife is unusual in the kingdom even if a husband has been unfaithful, abused or deserted his wife, or engaged in criminal activity.
For female initiated divorce in Saudi, a wife must go to a court for the case to be heard.
LGBT rightsSaudi is one of ten countries where homosexuality is punishable by death as well as fines, flogging, prison time, on first offense. In April 2020, the Saudi Supreme Court abolished the flogging punishment, and replaced it with jail time or fines or both.
Other customsAs in other Arab and especially Gulf countries, Saudi customs include avoiding certain practices, such as:
- anything that would cause someone embarrassment and loss of face;
- exposing the soles of the feet or footwear to someone;
- using the left hand when eating
- rushing into doing business before conversation and the drinking of tea and coffee
- admiring a movable possession of a Saudi, since a hospitable Saudi will feel obliged to offer the possession as a gift to the guest admirer
Older brothers—even if older by only a few days—should have their hand kissed by younger brothers, sit above them on formal occasions, enter a room before them.
Women who go on even short trips of a few days are expected to visit senior relatives and even close neighbors to bid them goodbye, and upon returning, make another round of visits to the same individuals to pay her respects and dispense small gifts. Saudis may "require four to six months" to check their plans with extended family before finalizing them.
One observer has noted that "through their love of language, Saudis are swayed more by words rather than ideas and more by ideas than facts." While vigorous public arguments may be commonplace, it "is most unusual to see a Saudi strike another Saudi." This emphasis on rhetoric is reflected in foreign affairs where, for example, the government "regularly condemns the State of Israel in the most vehement and bloodcurdling terms but rarely takes action."
Physical environmentMany outsiders are struck by the superficial resemblance of Saudi cities, with their superhighways, shopping malls and fast food, to those of post-World War II western cities and suburbs.
UrbanizationAs late as 1970, most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but the kingdom has urbanized rapidly in the last half of the 20th century. As of 2012 about 80% of Saudis live in urban metropolitan areas, specifically Riyadh, Jeddah, or Dammam.
HousingSaudi houses and housing compounds are often noted for the high walls surrounding them, explained as useful in keeping out sandstorms and/or reflective of the families' self-contained outlook on the world.
Style and decorationLike many people throughout the world, many Saudis derive "much pleasure and pride" in their homes. Saudis enjoy decorating rooms of their homes in "all the colours of the spectrum" and display objets d'art of many different styles together. "Clashes of colour and culture are the norm, not the exception," with the value of an artefact, "rather than consistency of style" being the major criterion of display. Foreigners may also be struck by the lack of finishing touches in construction or maintenance.
Islamic heritage sitesSaudi Arabia, and specifically the Hejaz, as the cradle of Islam, has many of the most significant historic Muslim sites, including the two holiest sites of Mecca and Medina. One of the King's titles is Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, the two mosques being Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina, which contains Muhammad's tomb.
However, Saudi Wahhabism doctrine is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk'. As a consequence, under Saudi rule, an estimated 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished for religious reasons. Critics claim that over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost, leaving fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad.
Demolished structures include the mosque originally built by Muhammad's daughter Fatima, and other mosques founded by Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, and Salman al-Farsi. Other historic buildings that have been destroyed include the house of Khadijah, the wife of Muhammad, the house of Abu Bakr, now the site of the local Hilton hotel; the house of Ali-Oraid, the grandson of Muhammad, and the Mosque of abu-Qubais, now the location of the King's palace in Mecca.
Women, youth and foreigners
WomenWhile women were forbidden to drive motor vehicles until June 24, 2018 and were consequently limited in mobility, they traditionally have often had considerable informal power in the home. According to journalist Judith Miller, "some Saudi women were veritable tyrants in their own homes. They decided where their children would go to school, when and whom they would marry, whether their husbands would accept new jobs, with whom the family socialized, and where the family would live and spend vacations. They promoted their friends' husbands, sons and relatives to key jobs." David Long, a former American diplomat who had taught in the kingdom, has described Saudi men as "the world's most henpecked".
Outside the home, a number of Saudi women have risen to the top of some professions or otherwise achieved prominence; for example, Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa is head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist. However employment for women is limited, and urban middle and upper-class women spend much time in socializing with the extended family and close friends. Writing in National Geographic Marrianne Alireza noted: "For city women like us the only activity besides living communally within the extended family was leaving our quarters to visit other women in their quarters."
As of 2014, child marriage is still legal
but no longer common, with the average age at first marriage among Saudi females being 25 years old. However, in 2019 Members of the Saudi Shoura Council in 2019 approved fresh regulations for minor marriages that will see to outlaw marrying off 15-year-old children and force the need for court approval for those under 18. Chairman of the Human Rights Committee at the Shoura Council, Dr. Hadi Al-Yami, said that introduced controls were based on in-depth studies presented to the body. He pointed out that the regulation, vetted by the Islamic Affairs Committee at the Shoura Council, has raised the age of marriage to 18 and prohibited it for those under 15. Female literacy is lower than that of males, but the percentage of university graduates who are women is higher.
While the kingdom states that the status of women is "a very noble and lofty one", according to leading Islamic scholars, women in Saudi do not have equal rights with men. Outside of Saudi, foreign sources have shown that discrimination of women is a significant problem and that there is an absence of laws criminalizing violence against women.
The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity.
in Riyadh. Many women commonly wear a niqab or a burqa in Saudi Arabia.
Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian", whose permission she is required to have in order to travel, study, or work. The guardian is legally entitled to make a number of critical decisions on a woman's behalf. However, women above 18 will soon be allowed to travel abroad without taking their guardians permission as a new law is going to be enacted in this regards in 2019. In August 2019, the law has been already enacted and women above 21 are allowed to travel without a prior permission. The law came into effect at the end of August 2019.
In the courts, the testimony of a woman equals half of a man's and the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law. Men are permitted up to four wives, but women are permitted no more than one husband. Men need no legal justification to unilaterally divorce their wives, while a woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her. With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the "Qu'ranic heirs" and so daughters of the deceased will receive half of their brothers.
Saudi women's lives are also shaped by Wahhabi religious policy of strict gender segregation. In health, obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudi women, who have domestic servants to do traditional work and have limited ability to leave their house. School sports for girls is forbidden, but as of April 2014, Saudi authorities in the education ministry have been asked by the Shoura Council to consider lifting that ban.
In the public sphere restaurants have specially designated family sections women are required to use. They are also required to wear an abaya and at the very least cover their hair. Women, until June 2018 were forbidden to drive. Women have been promised the vote in 2015 municipal elections.
YouthLike many Muslim countries of the Middle East, Saudi Arabia has a high population growth rate and high percentage of its population under 30 years of age. Estimates of the young population of Saudi Arabia vary:
- Carlye Murphy gives the figure of 51% of the population being under the age of 25, as of February 2012.
- The Economist magazine estimates 60% of the Saudi population under the age of 21, as of March 2012.
- The "United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision" estimates only 28% of the population is under 14 years of age and significant change to Saudi culture is foreseen as this generation becomes older.
In recent decades, child rearing in Saudi Arabia has increasingly been handled by hired servants.
Since foreign labour is cheap and common, even families of modest means usually have servants. In richer families, each child may have an individual servant.
However, unlike parents, servants can be fired/sacked and are often neither Muslims nor Arabs. Consequently, according to at least one observer, they both "lack the authority... to discipline those in their care", and the ability and knowledge to "pass down by example the core Islamic values and traditions that have always formed the bedrock of Saudi society."
Unlike their parents, who grew up during the oil boom of the 1970s and saw their standard of living rise from poverty to affluence, Saudis born "in the 1980s and 1990s have no memory of the impoverished Arabia prior to the oil boom and thus express almost no sense of appreciation."
Instead, they have experienced a kingdom of poor schools, overcrowded universities, and declining job opportunities.. Moreover, their royal rulers' profligate and often non-Islamic lifestyles are increasingly transparent to Saudis and stand in sharp contrast both to Al Saud religious pretensions and to their own declining living standards."
Saudi youth are exposed to youth lifestyles of the outside world via the internet, as dating, and concerts are banned in their country. However, in 2017 concerts were no longer banned in Saudi Arabia. Public fields for soccer are scarce. Even shopping malls do not allow young men unless they are accompanied by a female relative.
As of 2014, men are no longer required to have a female relative to be able to enter shopping malls. Insofar as young people have a tendency to "resent authority, reject rules, and seek to exert their independence," youth rebellion is more problematic because the number of "restrictions and conventions against which youth can rebel" in the kingdom is far larger than in most societies. The average age of the king and crown prince is 74, while 50–60% of Saudis are under twenty, creating a significant generation gap between rulers and ruled.
In a 2011 survey, 31% of Saudi youth agreed with the statement `traditional values are outdated and... I am keen to embrace modern values and beliefs`—the highest percentage in the ten Arab countries surveyed.
The number who had confidence about the direction of their country dropped from 98% to 62%.
While in most societies these numbers might seem unremarkable, in Saudi Arabia any rebellion stands out against "the unquestioning acceptance... of previous generations".
Nearly two-thirds of university graduates earn degrees in Islamic subjects,
where job prospects are in the public sector, dependent on government revenues. However, funding for public sector may decline not expand in coming years. At least some experts expect the kingdom's expenditures to "exceed its oil revenues as soon as 2014."
Unemployment among 20- to 24-year-olds is 39% – 45% for women and 30.3% for men—compared to an official unemployment rate of 10% circa 2012.
TafheetThe sport of Tafheet also called "drifting" or joyriding—illegal street racing-like phenomenon of generally non-modified factory-setup rental cars at very high speeds, around, across wide highways throwing the car left and right that is especially popular in the margins of society—has been noted by observers. A 2004 school survey carried out in the kingdom's three biggest cities found that 45% of teenage boys were involved to some degree in joyriding.
The sport has been described as "tyre-burning acrobatics often in stolen or `borrowed` cars before a flash-mob of youthful admirers, represents not only a deliberate challenge to authority but also a reclaiming of turf, manliness and even tribal pride from an emasculating society." As a recreation by and for young men " it is often for the alluring eyes of pretty teenage boys that skilled drivers perform" according to popular songs and poetry. As a dangerous, illegal and so unregulated activity, crashes and fatalities sometimes occur.
ForeignersSince the 1960s there has been a significant number of guest workers/foreign expatriates allowed into Saudi on work visas, and these now make up around 20–30% of the population of the country. Guest workers range in occupation from high skilled workers, to manual service workers. A number of sources describe a "pecking order" among workers established by factors such as the importance of your employer, and country of origin. One source places workers from Gulf oil producing countries at the top, another places Americans there, but all agree that Nationals from places like Bangladesh, Yemen and Philippines are at the bottom. While foreign workers from Western countries are now a small minority, numbering only approximately 100,000, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities.
With a large number of unemployed Saudis, a growing population and need for government spending but stagnating oil revenues with which to pay foreign workers, the large number of expats has come to be seen as "an enormous problem" that "distorts" the Saudi economy and "keeps young people out of the labour market."
In October 2011, the Saudi Labour Ministry put a "ceiling" on the number of guest workers at 20% of the Saudi population, requiring a reduction of foreign population by up to three million over several years.
In March 2013, a campaign was initiated to "get rid of its illegal foreign workers, control the legal ones", and lower native-born Saudi unemployment. Approximately one million Bangladeshis, Indians, Filipinos, Nepalis, Pakistanis and Yemenis left between the campaign's beginning and the deadline, with authorities planning to expel another one million illegal foreigners in 2014. Ethiopians were a particular target of the campaign, with thousands expelled. Various human rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. Prior to this workers were sometimes not hired or expelled as a way of registering Saudi disapproval of the workers' country. Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991 during the Gulf War due to Yemen's support for Saddam Hussein against Saudi Arabia, and cut the number of Bangladeshis allowed to enter Saudi in 2013 after the Bangladeshi government cracked down on the Islamist Jamaat-e Islami party there.
The Saudi–Yemen barrier was constructed by Saudi Arabia against an influx of illegal immigrants and against the smuggling of drugs and weapons.
A 2004 law passed by Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers, entitles Muslim expatriates of all nationalities who have resided in the kingdom for ten years to apply for citizenship with priority being given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields.
Treatment of foreign workers is also an issue. According to Human Rights Watch, as of 2014, there was a "worrying trend" of expatriate domestic workers filing "complaints of exploitation and abuse" only to face counter-allegations by their employers of "theft, witchcraft or adultery." 41 expat workers from just one country, Indonesia, faced "possible death sentences" in Saudi Arabia on charges "ranging from black magic to stealing, adultery and murder".
In 2014 Saudi men were banned from marrying women from Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar and Chad.
Legacy of slaveryThe Arabian Peninsula has a long tradition of slavery and ethnically, Saudis have a range of skin color "from very light to very dark and features from Caucasian to African", a testimony to ethnicity of the slaves that intermarried over the centuries with natives of the region. Abolition of slavery came relatively recently in Saudi, so that it has existed within in the lifetime of many present day Saudis, and according to at least some observers, "a semblance of the slave owner mentality sometimes lingers on" among some Saudi.
Food and drinkToday, Saudis follow many of their traditional habits, especially in food and drinks. As many Saudies are originally descended from tribes of sheep and goat herders, many Saudi dishes are mainly made of sheep meat.
Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula, and has been heavily influenced by Turkish, Persian, and African food. Animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal Islamic dietary laws, which consider pork forbidden and alcohol forbidden. As a general rule, Saudis consider impure pork to be disgusting, but forbidden alcohol a temptation. Consequently, dietary laws regarding the former are more strictly observed than those regarding the latter.
Religious limitationsPeople of Saudi Arabia are restricted by the religious norms related to food and drink. Thus, alcohol is prohibited in Islam and, accordingly, it is prevented in the country. Furthermore, pork is also prohibited and Saudis do not eat it. Nevertheless, cows, sheep, chicken and other types of animals can't be eaten unless they are slaughtered according to the Islamic law.
CuisineA dish consisting of a stuffed lamb, known as khūzī, is the traditional national dish. Kebabs are popular, as is shāwarmā, a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken, sometimes wrapped in flat bread. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs, a rice dish with fish or shrimp, is popular. Flat, unleavened bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates and fresh fruit. Coffee, served in the Arabic style, is the traditional beverage.
The appearance of modern supermarkets and commercial restaurants starting in the 1970s has changed Saudi culinary habits. International cuisine, particularly fast food, has become popular in all Saudi urban areas.
While traditionally Saudis ate sitting on the floor using the right hand or flat bread to take food from a roasted lamb, goat or camel carcass, the practice of eating while sitting on a chair at a table has become more standard practice, if not the use of knives and forks.
Coffee is often served "with great ceremony", and it is customary to drink two or three cups to indicate your approval of the coffee. Cups are refilled unless a gesture—shaking your cup—is made to indicate you've had enough. It is considered good manners for a guest to eat heartily.
News mediaEducated Saudis are well informed of issues of the Arab world, the Islamic world, and the world at large, but freedom of the press and public expression of opinion are not recognized by the government. The "Basic Law" of the kingdom states that the media's role is to educate and inspire national unity, and are prohibited from acts that lead "to disorder and division". News stories, public speeches and other acts of personal expression cannot conflict with traditional Islamic values, or dissent from government policy, insult government officials, especially the royal family, and cannot delve too deeply into certain sensitive and taboo subject matters that might embarrass the government or spread dissent, i.e. the role of women in Saudi society, the treatment of Shiite Muslims, damage caused by natural disasters, or social problems such as the AIDS-HIV pandemic and human trafficking.
Most Saudi Arabian newspapers are privately owned but subsidized and regulated by the government.
As of 2013, BBC news reported that criticism of the government and royal family and the questioning of Islamic tenets "are not generally tolerated. Self-censorship is pervasive." As of 2014, Freedom House rates the kingdom's press and internet "Not Free".
Civil societyLabor unions and political parties are prohibited in the kingdom, although a few underground political parties do exist. The government has created a national "Consultative Council", and has given permission for certain "societies" to exist.
Informal public discussion of public policy is not actively encouraged, although it is not expressly per se, unless it is deemed to be promoting immorality, dissent or disloyalty. Limited non-partisan municipal elections were held in 2005.
SportThe most popular sport in Saudi Arabia is Association football in both in participation and viewing. It is governed by the Saudi Arabia Football Federation that was founded in 1956.
There are 60 football clubs participating in three main professional football league levels; the Saudi Professional League involving 16 football clubs, Prince Mohammad bin Salman League with 20 clubs and Second Division with 24 clubs. The demotics competitions also include some cups such as King club, Crown Prince Cup and Saudi Super Cup.
The Saudi Arabian national football team has qualified five times for FIFA World Cup competitions, in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and most recently, in 2018. Moreover, it qualified for the AFC Asian Cup 10 times and had won three of them.
Recently, some Saudi players have become skilled enough to play in Europe. The players were sent to Spain to play in the La Liga aiming to improve their skills better.
Basketball is also popular. The Saudi Arabian national basketball team won the bronze medal at the 1999 Asian Championship.
Horse racing is also another diversion in Saudi Arabia which has a historical and cultural legacy where Friday afternoon is the traditional time of horse racing in Riyadh, the Saudi capital. The establishment of the Equestrian Club of Riyadh in 1965 was a result of the importance of horse racing. Moreover, now Saudis are the dominant player in some international horse racing such as Royal Ascot to Longchamp and Melbourne.
Falconry is another sport with long traditions rooted in Bedouin culture. It mainly consists of raising falcons, training them and using them for hunting. Despite the inscription of Falconry by the UNESCO as a living human heritage, it is also emerging as a sport.
Camel racing is a uniquely Arabian sport practiced in the kingdom that still has some mass popularity. There are camel racetracks in most of the kingdom's major centres, and races for prize money on many weekends throughout the winter months. Like racehorses, camels with breeding pedigrees may be very valuable.
Women's sportIn 2012, Saudi Arabia included women in its Olympic team for the first time. Two female athletes—a runner and judoka—participated. The inclusion followed international criticism for years of exclusion, but was controversial in the kingdom, and "prompted some to abuse the morals" of the athletes on social media.
As of April 2014, Saudi authorities in the education ministry have been asked by the Shoura Council to consider lifting a state school ban on sports for girls with the proviso that any sports conform to Sharia rules on dress and gender segregation, according to the official SPA news agency.
Women participation have then increased as four athletes were sent to the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio. They were two runner Sarah Attar, and Cariman Abu al-Jadail joined by judo athlete Wujud Fahmi and fencing competitor Lubna al-Omair.
In 2018, more than 1300 girls participated in a 3 km marathon, al-Ahsa Runs, for the first time in the country.
Arts and entertainmentVisual arts tend to be dominated by geometric, floral, and abstract designs and by calligraphy. Sunni Islam traditionally prohibits creating representations of people. With the advent of oil wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes.
Calligraphy is the art of forming arranging beautiful letters and symbols, and it is among the dominant art forms in Saudi Arabia. This art has been emerging in different themes such as metalwork, ceramics, glass textiles, painting, and sculpture.
Apart from the dominant art forms, there were some portrait paintings and sculptures produced by some artists in the 1960s like Artist Dia Aziz Dia from Jeddah.
Al-Qatt Al-Asiri is another essential art form represents the identity of the Asir region. It is the art of interior wall decoration usually carried out by women. The base of this art is white gypsum with colorful patterns of geometric shapes and symbol painted on it. This art form is now inscribed on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The ten-day-long Jenadriyah National Festival celebrates the founding of the kingdom and showcases Saudi culture and heritage, traditional crafts such as pottery and woodcutting, folk dance and traditional songs.
Music and danceMusic and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular.
Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl and the ṭār.
Al-sihba folk music has its origins in al-Andalus. In Mecca, Medina and Jeddah, dance and song incorporate the sound of the mizmar, an oboe-like woodwind instrument, in the performance of the mizmar dance. The drum is also an important instrument according to traditional and tribal customs. Samri is a popular traditional form of music and dance in which poetry is sung.
Of the native dances, the most popular is a martial line dance known as the Al Ardha, which includes lines of men, frequently armed with swords or rifles, dancing to the beat of drums and tambourines. As one non-Saudi described it, the performance consists of : "barefooted males clad in their normal street clothes of thobe and gutra jumping up and down mostly in one spot while wielding swords".
Dahha is another popular dance in Northern Saudi performed by one line of men or two lines facing each other while a man in between sings a poem which can be a satirical, eulogy or a descriptive poem.
LiteratureBedouin poetry is a cultural tradition in Saudi Arabia. According to Sandra Mackey, author of The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom, "the role that formal poetry, prose, and oratory play in Saudi culture is totally alien to Western culture." Mackey explained that the Bedouin poet was the origin of Saudi society's traditionally strong attachment to the concept of language. She said that poetry "can arise in the most curious of situations" due to the role of poetry in Saudi culture.
The literary renaissance began during the first quarter of the 20th century where the literary genre of poetry was improved in language and number of poets. The pioneer poets during that era include Mohammed Faqi, Tahir Zamakhshri, and Hasan Alqurashi.
Novel writing is another literary genre in Saudi literature where the first Saudi novel was The Twins by Abdul Alquddus Alansari. In the modern era of Saudi novel, some novel writer becomes popular like Turki Alhamad, Abdu Khal Raja Alim.
Theatre in Saudi Arabia back to 1928 where their origins were schools. The earliest attempts were in Qassim and Makkah, and subsequently, universities contributed to the theatre activities.
Contemporary Saudi novelists and artists include:
- Abdul Rahman Munif
- Turki al-Hamad
- Raja'a Alem
- Rajaa Al Sanie, author of best-selling novel Girls of Riyadh
- Ghazi Abdul Rahman Al Gosaibi
- Haifaa al-Mansour
Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's Vision 2030 should bring cinemas back to the country in early 2018. The establishment of the General Authority for Entertainment in 2016 has pushed for entertainment options of the including cinemas, public concerts, international conferences, competitions, singing show and other cultural activities.