The area which would one day become Alpine was settled by William Wordsworth and several other homesteading families in the fall of 1850. The town was originally called Mountainville, and under the latter name settlement was first made in 1851. The city was renamed because the views from the elevated town site were compared to the Swiss Alps.
Alpine is located on State Route 74, just north of the city of Highland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of. None of that area is covered with water, although a number of small mountain streams run through the city on years with sufficient rainfall. There are a number of mountain biking trails around the city that attract bikers from all over the state. There are also many trails and paths well suited for back-trail hiking along the mountains. The nearby American Fork Canyon offers camping, swimming and access to mountaineering regions around Mount Timpanogos. The hills surrounding Alpine have been affected by a number of brush fires in recent years, the most devastating of which was the Quail Fire, which consumed over 2200 acres on the north-east side of town in July 2012. The area is serviced by the Lone Peak Fire Department and Lone Peak Police Force.
Alpine is part of the Provo-Orem, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,555 people, 1,662 households, and 1,545 families residing in the city. The population density was 992.1 people per square mile. There were 1,734 housing units at an average density of 240.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.40% White, 0.18% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, and 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.60% of the population. There were 1,662 households out of which 63.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 86.5% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 7.0% were non-families. 6.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.30 and the average family size was 4.51. In the city, the population was spread out with 44.9% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, and 5.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $72,880, and the median income for a family was $74,891. Males had a median income of $57,250 versus $33,571 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,716. About 3.5% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.
Despite being a fairly small town geographically, Alpine is home to five schools. Three of the schools are a part of the Alpine School District, while the fourth, Mountainville Academy, is a charter school for grades K-9. Alpine Elementary and Westfield Elementary are Alpine District Schools for grades K-6. Both of the Alpine District elementary schools feed into Timberline Middle School, a 7–9 grade school. The Montessori Canyon Academy was founded by Michelle Kerr in 2014, and offers private preschool education.