Johannine literature

Johannine literature refers to the collection of New Testament works that are traditionally attributed to John the Apostle or to a Johannine Christian community. They are dated to c. AD 60–110.


Johannine literature is traditionally considered to include the following works:
Of these five books, the only one that explicitly identifies its author as a "John" is Revelation. Modern scholarship generally rejects the idea that this work is written by the same author as the other four documents. The gospel identifies its author as the disciple whom Jesus loved, commonly identified with John the Evangelist since the end of the first century. Some modern scholars accept the view that the Beloved Disciple is the author of the Fourth Gospel but do not identify him with John the Apostle.
Scholars have debated the authorship of Johannine literature since at least the third century, but especially since the Enlightenment. The authorship by John the Apostle is rejected by many modern scholars.