Graphics display resolution
The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.
Overview by vertical resolution and aspect ratio
Aspect ratioThe favored aspect ratio of mass market display industry products has changed gradually from 4:3, then to 16:10, then to 16:9, and is now changing to 18:9 for phones. The 4:3 aspect ratio generally reflects older products, especially the era of the cathode ray tube. The 16:10 aspect ratio had its largest use in the 1995–2010 period, and the 16:9 aspect ratio tends to reflect post-2010 mass market computer monitor, laptop, and entertainment products displays. On CRTs there was often a difference between the aspect ratio of the computer resolution and the aspect ratio of the display causing non-square pixels.
The 4:3 aspect ratio was common in older television cathode ray tube displays, which were not easily adaptable to a wider aspect ratio. When good quality alternate technologies became more available and less costly, around the year 2000, the common computer displays and entertainment products moved to a wider aspect ratio, first to the 16:10 ratio. The 16:10 ratio allowed some compromise between showing older 4:3 aspect ratio broadcast TV shows, but also allowing better viewing of widescreen movies. However, around the year 2005, home entertainment displays gradually moved from 16:10 to the 16:9 aspect ratio, for further improvement of viewing widescreen movies. By about 2007, virtually all mass market entertainment displays were 16:9. In 2011, was the favored resolution in the most heavily marketed entertainment market displays. The next standard, , was first sold in 2013.
Also in 2013, displays with appeared, which closely approximate the common CinemaScope movie standard aspect ratio of 2.35–2.40. In 2014, "21:9" screens with pixel dimensions of became available as well.
The computer display industry maintained the 16:10 aspect ratio longer than the entertainment industry, but in the 2005–2010 period, computers were increasingly marketed as dual use products, with uses in the traditional computer applications, but also as means of viewing entertainment content. In this time frame, with the notable exception of Apple, almost all desktop, laptop, and display manufacturers gradually moved to promoting only 16:9 aspect ratio displays. By 2011, the 16:10 aspect ratio had virtually disappeared from the Windows laptop display market. One consequence of this transition was that the highest available resolutions moved generally downward.
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All standard HD resolutions share a aspect ratio, although some derived resolutions with smaller or larger ratios also exist. Most of the narrower resolutions are only used for storing, not for displaying videos.
(nHD)nHD is a display resolution of pixels, which is exactly one ninth of a [|Full HD] frame and one quarter of a HD frame. Pixel doubling nHD frames will form one 720p frame and pixel tripling nHD frames will form one 1080p frame.
One drawback of this resolution regarding encoding is that the number of lines is not an even multiple of 16, which is a common macroblock size for video codecs. Video frames encoded with 16×16 pixel macroblocks would be padded to and the added pixels would be cropped away at playback. H.264 codecs have this padding and cropping ability built-in as standard. The same is true for qHD and 1080p but the relative amount of padding is more for lower resolutions such as nHD.
To avoid storing the eight lines of padded pixels, some people prefer to encode video at, which only has one stored padded line. When such video streams are either encoded from HD frames or played back on HD displays in full screen mode they are scaled by non-integer scale factors. True nHD frames on the other hand has integer scale factors, for example Nokia 808 PureView with nHD display.
(qHD)qHD is a display resolution of pixels, which is exactly one quarter of a Full HD frame, in a 16:9 aspect ratio.
Similar to DVGA, this resolution became popular for high-end smartphone displays in early 2011. Mobile phones including the Jolla, Sony Xperia C, HTC Sensation, Motorola Droid RAZR, LG Optimus L9, Microsoft Lumia 535 and Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini have displays with the qHD resolution, as does the PlayStation Vita portable game system.
(HD)The HD resolution of pixels stems from high-definition television, where it originally used 50 or 60 frames per second. With its 16:9 aspect ratio it is exactly 2 times the width and 1 times the height of 4:3 [|VGA], which shares its aspect ratio and 480 line count with NTSC. HD therefore has exactly 3 times as many pixels as VGA, i.e. almost 1 megapixel.
This resolution is often referred to as 720p, although the p is irrelevant for labeling digital display resolutions.
When distinguishing from, the pair has sometimes been labeled HD1 or HD-1 and HD2 or HD-2, respectively.
In the mid 2000s, when the digital HD technology and standard debuted on the market, this type of resolution was often referred to by the branded name HD ready or HDr for short, which had specified it as a minimum resolution for devices to qualify for the certification. However, few screens have been built that actually use this resolution natively. Most employ 16:9 panels with 768 lines instead, which resulted in odd numbers of pixels per line, i.e. 1365 are rounded to 1360, 1364, 1366 or even 1376, the next multiple of 16.is the resolution of Panasonic's DVCPRO HD Format, as well as DV Camcorders using this format, and their TFT LCD screens. It has an aspect ratio of 32:27, an approximate of Movietone Cameras of 1930's. In 2007, Hitachi released a few 42" and 50" television models at this resolution.
(HD+)The HD+ resolution of pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio is often referred to as 900p.
(FHD)FHD is the resolution used by the 1080p and 1080i HDTV video formats. It has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 2,073,600 total pixels, i.e. very close to 2 megapixels, and is exactly 50% larger than HD in each dimension for a total of 2.25 times as many pixels. Using interlacing, the bandwidth requirements are very similar to those of 720p at the same field rate.
(DCI 2K)DCI 2K is a standardized format established by the Digital Cinema Initiatives consortium in 2005 for 2K video projection. This format has a resolution of with an aspect ratio of 256:135. This is the native resolution for DCI-compliant 2K digital projectors and displays. is a resolution used by many smartphones since 2018. It has an aspect ratio of 18:9, matching that of the Univisium film format.This resolution is equivalent to a Full HD extended in width by 33%, with an aspect ratio of. It is sometimes referred to as "1080p ultrawide" or "UW-FHD". Monitors at this resolution usually contain built in firmware to divide the screen into two screens.
(QHD, WQHD)QHD, WQHD, or 1440p, is a display resolution of pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio. The name QHD reflects the fact that it has four times as many pixels as HD. It is also commonly called WQHD, to emphasize it being a wide resolution, although that is technically unnecessary, since the HD resolutions are all wide. One advantage of using "WQHD" is avoiding confusion with qHD with a small q.
This resolution was under consideration by the ATSC in the late 1980s to become the standard HDTV format, because it is exactly 4 times the width and 3 times the height of VGA, which has the same number of lines as NTSC signals at the SDTV 4:3 aspect ratio. Pragmatic technical constraints made them choose the now well-known 16:9 formats with twice and thrice the VGA width instead.
In October 2006, Chi Mei Optoelectronics announced a 47-inch 1440p LCD panel to be released in Q2 2007; the panel was planned to finally debut at FPD International 2008 in a form of autostereoscopic 3D display. As of the end of 2013, monitors with this resolution were becoming more common.
The Apple Thunderbolt Display, a 27-inch monitor sold from July 2011 to June 2016 had a native resolution of 2560 × 1440. It required the use of a Thunderbolt port to achieve this resolution.
The resolution is also used in portable devices. In September 2012, Samsung announced the Series 9 WQHD laptop with a 13-inch display. In August 2013, LG announced a 5.5-inch QHD smartphone display, which was used in the LG G3. In October 2013 Vivo announced a smartphone with a display.
Other phone manufacturers followed in 2014, such as Samsung with the Galaxy Note 4, and Google and Motorola with the Nexus 6 smartphone. By the mid 2010s, it was a common resolution among flagship phones such as the HTC 10, the Lumia 950, and the Galaxy S6 and S7.
(QHD+)This resolution has a 16:9 aspect ratio, and is exactly four times as many pixels as the HD+ resolution. It has been referred to as WQXGA+, QHD and QHD+ by various different companies.This resolution is equivalent to QHD extended in width by 34%, giving it an aspect ratio of 43:18. The first monitor to support this resolution was the 34-inch LG 34UM95-P. LG uses the term UW-QHD to describe this resolution. This monitor was first released in Germany in late December 2013, before being officially announced at CES 2014.
The first products announced to use this resolution were the 2013 HP Envy 14 TouchSmart Ultrabook and the 13.3-inch Samsung Ativ Q.This resolution is equivalent to two Full HD displays side by side, or one vertical half of a 4K UHD display. It has an aspect ratio of 32:9, close to the 3.6:1 ratio of. Samsung monitors at this resolution contain built in firmware to divide the screen into two screens, or one and one screen.This resolution has a 12:5 aspect ratio. It is equivalent to WQXGA extended in width by 50%, or 4K UHD reduced in height by 26%. This resolution is commonly encountered in cinematic 4K content that has been cropped vertically to a widescreen 2.4:1 aspect ratio. The first monitor to support this resolution was the 37.5-inch LG 38UC99-W. Other vendors followed, with Dell U3818DW, HP Z38c, and Acer XR382CQK. This resolution is referred to as UW4K, WQHD+, UWQHD+, or QHD+, though no single name is agreed upon.
(4K UHD)This resolution, sometimes referred to as 4K UHD or 4K2K, has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 8,294,400 pixels. It is double the size of Full HD in both dimensions for a total of four times as many pixels, and triple the size of HD in both dimensions for a total of nine times as many pixels. It is the lowest common multiple of the HDTV resolutions.
was chosen as the resolution of the UHDTV1 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1, as well as the 4K UHDTV system defined in ITU-R BT.2020 and the UHD-1 broadcast standard from DVB. It is also the minimum resolution requirement for CEA's definition of an Ultra HD display. Prior to the publication of these standards, it was sometimes casually referred to as QFHD.
The first commercial displays capable of this resolution include an 82-inch LCD TV revealed by Samsung in early 2008, the Sony SRM-L560, a 56-inch LCD reference monitor announced in October 2009, an 84-inch display demonstrated by LG in mid-2010, and a 27.84-inch 158PPI 4K IPS monitor for medical purposes launched by Innolux in November 2010. In October 2011 Toshiba announced the REGZA 55x3, which is claimed to be the first 4K glasses-free 3D TV.
DisplayPort supports at 30Hz in version 1.1, and added support for up to 75Hz in version 1.2 and 120Hz in version 1.3, while HDMI added support for at 30Hz in version 1.4 and 60Hz in version 2.0.
When support for 4K at 60Hz was added in DisplayPort 1.2, no DisplayPort timing controllers existed which were capable of processing the necessary amount of data from a single video stream. As a result, the first 4K monitors from 2013 and early 2014, such as the Sharp PN-K321, Asus PQ321Q, and Dell UP2414Q and UP3214Q, were addressed internally as two monitors side by side instead of a single display and made use of DisplayPort's Multi-Stream Transport feature to multiplex a separate signal for each half over the connection, splitting the data between two timing controllers. Newer timing controllers became available in 2014, and after mid-2014 new 4K monitors such as the Asus PB287Q no longer rely on MST tiling technique to achieve 4K at 60Hz, instead using the standard SST approach.
In 2015 Sony announced the Xperia Z5 Premium, the first smartphone with a 4K display, and in 2017 Sony announced the Xperia XZ Premium, the first smartphone with a 4K HDR display.
(DCI 4K), referred to as DCI 4K, Cinema 4K or 4K2K, is the resolution used by the 4K container format defined by the Digital Cinema Initiatives Digital Cinema System Specification, a prominent standard in the cinema industry. This resolution has an aspect ratio of 256:135, and 8,847,360 total pixels. This is the native resolution for DCI 4K digital projectors and displays.
HDMI added support for at 24Hz in version 1.4 and 60Hz in version 2.0.This resolution is equivalent to 4K UHD extended in width by 33%, giving it a 64:27 aspect ratio and 11,059,200 total pixels. It is exactly double the size of #2560x1080| in both dimensions, for a total of four times as many pixels. The first displays to support this resolution were 105-inch televisions, the LG 105UC9 and the Samsung UN105S9W. In December 2017, LG announced a 34-inch monitor, the 34WK95U. LG refers to this resolution as 5K2K WUHD.
(5K)This resolution, commonly referred to as 5K or , has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 14,745,600 pixels. Although it is not established by any of the UHDTV standards, some manufacturers such as Dell have referred to it as UHD+. It is exactly double the pixel count of QHD in both dimensions for a total of four times as many pixels, and is 33% larger than 4K UHD in both dimensions for a total of 1. times as many pixels. The line count of 2880 is also the least common multiple of 480 and 576, the scanline count of NTSC and PAL, respectively. Such a resolution can vertically scale SD content to fit by natural numbers. Horizontal scaling of SD is always fractional.
The first display with this resolution was the Dell UltraSharp UP2715K, announced on September 5, 2014. On October 16, 2014, Apple announced the iMac with Retina 5K display.
DisplayPort version 1.3 added support for 5K at 60Hz over a single cable, whereas DisplayPort1.2 was only capable of 5K at 30Hz. Early 5K 60Hz displays such as the Dell UltraSharp UP2715K and HP DreamColor Z27q that lacked DisplayPort1.3 support required two DisplayPort1.2 connections to operate at 60Hz, in a tiled display mode similar to early 4K displays using DP MST.
Other resolution with the same 5120-pixel width, which is the lowest common multiple of popular 1024 and 1280, but a different aspect ratio have also been called "5K" and some nominal 5K resolutions are just 4800 pixels wide, which is the lowest common multiple of 960 and 800.
(8K UHD)This resolution, sometimes referred to as 8K UHD, has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 33,177,600 pixels. It is exactly double the size of 4K UHD in each dimension for a total of four times as many pixels, and Quadruple the size of Full HD in each dimension for a total of sixteen times as many pixels. was chosen as the resolution of the UHDTV2 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1, as well as the 8K UHDTV system defined in ITU-R BT.2020 and the UHD-2 broadcast standard from DVB.
DisplayPort1.3, finalized by VESA in late 2014, added support for at 30Hz. VESA's Display Stream Compression, which was part of early DisplayPort1.3 drafts and would have enabled 8K at 60Hz without subsampling, was cut from the specification prior to publication of the final draft.
DSC support was reintroduced with the publication of DisplayPort1.4 in March 2016. Using DSC, a "visually lossless" form of compression, formats up to at 60Hz with HDR and 30bit/px color depth are possible without subsampling.
Video Graphics Array
(QQVGA)Quarter-QVGA denotes a resolution of or pixels, usually used in displays of handheld devices. The term Quarter-QVGA signifies a resolution of one fourth the number of pixels in a QVGA display which itself has one fourth the number of pixels in a VGA display.
The abbreviation qqVGA may be used to distinguish quarter from quad, just like qVGA.
(HQVGA)Half-QVGA denotes a display screen resolution of or pixels, as seen on the Game Boy Advance. This resolution is half of QVGA, which is itself a quarter of VGA, which is pixels.
(QVGA)Quarter VGA is a popular term for a computer display with display resolution. QVGA displays were most often used in mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and some handheld game consoles. Often the displays are in a "portrait" orientation and are referred to as.
The name comes from having a quarter of the maximum resolution of the original IBM VGA display technology, which became a de facto industry standard in the late 1980s. QVGA is not a standard mode offered by the VGA BIOS, even though VGA and compatible chipsets support a QVGA-sized Mode X. The term refers only to the display's resolution and thus the abbreviated term QVGA or Quarter VGA is more appropriate to use.
QVGA resolution is also used in digital video recording equipment as a low-resolution mode requiring less data storage capacity than higher resolutions, typically in still digital cameras with video recording capability, and some mobile phones. Each frame is an image of pixels. QVGA video is typically recorded at 15 or 30 frames per second. QVGA mode describes the size of an image in pixels, commonly called the resolution; numerous video file formats support this resolution.
While QVGA is a lower resolution than VGA, at higher resolutions the "Q" prefix commonly means quad or four times higher display resolution. To distinguish quarter from quad, lowercase "q" is sometimes used for "quarter" and uppercase "Q" for "Quad", by analogy with SI prefixes like m/M and p/P, but this is not a consistent usage.
Some examples of devices that use QVGA display resolution include, Samsung i5500, LG Optimus L3-E400, Galaxy Fit, Y and Pocket, HTC Wildfire, Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 Mini and mini pro and Nintendo 3DS' bottom screen.
(WQVGA)Wide QVGA or WQVGA is any display resolution having the same height in pixels as QVGA, but wider. This definition is consistent with other 'wide' versions of computer displays.
Since QVGA is 320 pixels wide and 240 pixels high, the resolution of a WQVGA screen might be , , , or . As with [|WVGA], exact ratios of n:9 are difficult because of the way VGA controllers internally deal with pixels. For instance, when using graphical combinatorial operations on pixels, VGA controllers will use 1 bit per pixel. Since bits cannot be accessed individually but by chunks of 16 or an even higher power of 2, this limits the horizontal resolution to a 16-pixel granularity, i.e., the horizontal resolution must be divisible by 16. In the case of 16:9 ratio, with 240 pixels high, the horizontal resolution should be 240 / 9 × 16 = 426., the closest multiple of 16 is 432.
WQVGA has also been used to describe displays that are not 240 pixels high, for example Sixteenth HD1080 displays which are 480 pixels wide and 270 or 272 pixels high. This may be due to WQVGA having the nearest screen height.
WQVGA resolutions were commonly used in touchscreen mobile phones, such as,, and. For example, the Hyundai MB 490i, Sony Ericsson Aino and the Samsung Instinct have WQVGA screen resolutions –. Other devices such as the Apple iPod Nano also use a WQVGA screen, pixels.
(HVGA)HVGA screens have pixels, pixels, , or pixels. The former is used by a variety of PDA devices, starting with the Sony CLIÉ PEG-NR70 in 2002, and standalone PDAs by Palm. The latter was used by a variety of handheld PC devices. VGA resolution is.
Examples of devices that use HVGA include the Apple iPhone, BlackBerry Bold 9000, HTC Dream, Hero, Wildfire S, LG GW620 Eve, MyTouch 3G Slide, Nokia 6260 Slide, Palm Pre, Samsung M900 Moment, Sony Ericsson Xperia X8, mini, mini pro, active and live and the Sony PlayStation Portable.
Texas Instruments produces the DLP pico projector which supports HVGA resolution.
HVGA was the only resolution supported in the first versions of Google Android, up to release 1.5. Other higher and lower resolutions became available starting on release 1.6, like the popular WVGA resolution on the Motorola Droid or the QVGA resolution on the HTC Tattoo.
Three-dimensional computer graphics common on television throughout the 1980s were mostly rendered at this resolution, causing objects to have jagged edges on the top and bottom when edges were not anti-aliased.
(VGA)Video Graphics Array refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987. Through its widespread adoption, VGA has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480| resolution itself. While the VGA resolution was superseded in the personal computer market in the 1990s, it became a popular resolution on mobile devices in the 2000s. VGA is still the universal fallback troubleshooting mode in the case of trouble with graphic device drivers in operating systems.
In the field of videos, the resolution of is sometimes called Standard Definition, in contrast to high-definition resolutions like and.
(WVGA)Wide VGA or WVGA, sometimes just WGA is any display resolution with the same 480 pixel height as VGA but wider, such as , ,,,, or .
It is a common resolution among LCD projectors and later portable and hand-held internet-enabled devices as it is capable of rendering web sites designed for an 800 wide window in full page-width. Examples of hand-held internet devices, without phone capability, with this resolution include: Spice stellar nhance mi-435, ASUS Eee PC 700 series, Dell XCD35, Nokia 770, N800, and N810.
Mobile phones with WVGA display resolution are also common.
(FWVGA)FWVGA is an abbreviation for Full Wide Video Graphics Array which refers to a display resolution of pixels. is approximately the 16:9 aspect ratio of anamorphically "un-squeezed" NTSC DVD widescreen video and considered a "safe" resolution that does not crop any of the image. It is called Full WVGA to distinguish it from other, narrower WVGA resolutions which require cropping 16:9 aspect ratio high-definition video.
The 854 pixel width is rounded up from 853.:
Since a pixel must be a whole number, rounding up to 854 ensures inclusion of the entire image.
In 2010, mobile phones with FWVGA display resolution started to become more common. A list of mobile phones with FWVGA displays is available. In addition, the Wii U GamePad that comes with the Nintendo Wii U gaming console includes a 6.2-inch FWVGA display.
(SVGA)Super Video Graphics Array, abbreviated to Super VGA or SVGA, also known as Ultra Video Graphics Array, abbreviated to Ultra VGA or UVGA, is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards.
Originally, it was an extension to the VGA standard first released by IBM in 1987. Unlike VGA – a purely IBM-defined standard – Super VGA was defined by the Video Electronics Standards Association, an open consortium set up to promote interoperability and define standards. When used as a resolution specification, in contrast to VGA or XGA for example, the term SVGA normally refers to a resolution of pixels.
The marginally higher resolution is the highest 4:3 resolution not greater than 219 pixels, with its horizontal dimension a multiple of 32 pixels. This enables it to fit within a framebuffer of 512KB, and the common multiple of 32 pixels constraint is related to alignment. For these reasons this resolution was available on the Macintosh LC III and other systems.
(DVGA)DVGA screens have pixels. Both dimensions are double that of HVGA, hence the pixel count is quadrupled.
Examples of devices that use DVGA include the Meizu MX mobile phone and the Apple iPhone 4/4S, where the screen is called the "Retina Display".
, (WSVGA)The wide version of SVGA is known as WSVGA, featured on Ultra-Mobile PCs, netbooks, and tablet computers. The resolution is either or with screen sizes normally ranging from 7 to 10 inches. It has full XGA width of 1024 pixels.
Although digital broadcast content in former PAL/SECAM regions has 576 active lines, several mobile TV sets with a DVB-T2 tuner use the 600-line variant with a diameter of 7, 9 or 10 inches.
Extended Graphics Array
(XGA)The Extended Graphics Array is an IBM display standard introduced in 1990. Later it became the most common appellation of the pixels display resolution, but the official definition is broader than that. It was not a new and improved replacement for Super VGA, but rather became one particular subset of the broad range of capabilities covered under the "Super VGA" umbrella.
The initial version of XGA expanded upon IBM's older VGA by adding support for four new screen modes, including one new resolution:
- pixels in direct 16 bits-per-pixel RGB hi-color and 8 bpp palette-indexed mode.
- pixels with a 16- or 256-color palette, using a low frequency interlaced refresh rate.
XGA-2 added a 24-bit DAC, but this was used only to extend the available master palette in 256-color mode, e.g. to allow true 256-greyscale output instead of the 64 grey levels previously available; there was still no direct True Color mode despite the adapter featuring enough default onboard VRAM to support it. Other improvements included provision of the previously missing resolution in up to 65,536 colors, faster screen refresh rates in all modes, and improved accelerator performance and versatility.
IBM licensed the XGA technology and architecture to certain third party hardware developers, and its characteristic modes were aped by many others. These accelerators typically did not suffer from the same limitations on available resolutions and refresh rate, and featured other now-standard modes like at various color depths and interlaced, non-interlaced and flicker-free refresh rates even before the release of the XGA-2.
All standard XGA modes have a aspect ratio with square pixels, although this does not hold for certain standard VGA and third-party extended modes.
XGA should not be confused with EVGA, a contemporaneous VESA standard that also has pixels. It should also not be confused with the Expanded Graphics Adapter, a peripheral for the IBM 3270 PC which can also be referred to as XGA.
and similar (WXGA)
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Wide XGA is a set of non standard resolutions derived from the XGA display standard by widening it to a wide screen aspect ratio. [|WXGA] is commonly used for low-end LCD TVs and LCD computer monitors for widescreen presentation. The exact resolution offered by a device described as "WXGA" can be somewhat variable owing to a proliferation of several closely related timings optimised for different uses and derived from different bases.When referring to televisions and other monitors intended for consumer entertainment use, WXGA is generally understood to refer to a resolution of, with an aspect ratio of very nearly 16:9. The basis for this otherwise odd seeming resolution is similar to that of other "wide" standards – the line scan rate of the well-established "XGA" standard extended to give square pixels on the increasingly popular 16:9 widescreen display ratio without having to effect major signalling changes other than a faster pixel clock, or manufacturing changes other than extending panel width by one third. As 768 does not divide exactly into 9, the aspect ratio is not quite 16:9 – this would require a horizontal width of 1365 pixels. However, at only 0.05%, the resulting error is insignificant.
In 2006, was the most popular resolution for liquid crystal display televisions ; by 2013, even this was relegated to only being used in smaller or cheaper displays, cheaper laptop and mobile tablet computers, and midrange home cinema projectors, having otherwise been overtaken by higher "full HD" resolutions such as.A common variant on this resolution is, which confers several technical benefits, most significantly a reduction in memory requirements from just over to just under 1MB per 8-bit channel, which simplifies architecture and can significantly reduce the amount–and speed–of VRAM required with only a very minor change in available resolution, as memory chips are usually only available in fixed megabyte capacities. For example, at 32-bit color, a framebuffer would require only 4MB, whilst a one may need 5, 6 or even 8MB depending on the exact display circuitry architecture and available chip capacities. The 6-pixel reduction also means each line's width is divisible by 8 pixels, simplifying numerous routines used in both computer and broadcast/theatrical video processing, which operate on 8-pixel blocks. Historically, many video cards also mandated screen widths divisible by 8 for their lower-color, planar modes to accelerate memory accesses and simplify pixel position calculations, and this convention still persisted in low-end hardware even into the early days of widescreen, LCD HDTVs; thus, most 1366-width displays also quietly support display of 1360-width material, with a thin border of unused pixel columns at each side. This narrower mode is of course even further removed from the 16:9 ideal, but the error is still less than 0.5% and should be imperceptible.When referring to laptop displays or independent displays and projectors intended primarily for use with computers, WXGA is also used to describe a resolution of pixels, with an aspect ratio of. This was once particularly popular for laptop screens, usually with a diagonal screen size of between 12 and 15 inches, as it provided a useful compromise between 4:3 XGA and 16:9 WXGA, with improved resolution in both dimensions vs. the old standard, a perceptibly "wider" appearance and the ability to display 720p HD video "native" with only very thin letterbox borders and no stretching. Additionally, like, it required only 1000KB of memory per 8-bit channel; thus, a typical double-buffered 32-bit colour screen could fit within 8MB, limiting everyday demands on the complexity of integrated graphics chipsets and their shared use of typically sparse system memory, at least when only the internal display was in use. 16:10 is itself a rather "classic" computer aspect ratio, harking back all the way to early modes as seen in the Commodore 64, IBM CGA card and others. However, as of mid 2013, this standard is becoming increasingly rare, crowded out by the more standardised and thus more economical-to-produce panels, as its previously beneficial features become less important with improvements to hardware, gradual loss of general backwards software compatibility, and changes in interface layout. As of August 2013, the market availability of panels with native resolution had been generally relegated to data projectors or niche products such as convertible tablet PCs and LCD-based eBook readers.
OthersAdditionally, at least two other resolutions are sometimes labelled as WXGA:
- First, the HDTV-standard , which offers an exact 16:9 aspect with square pixels; naturally, it displays standard 720p HD video material without stretching or letterboxing and 1080i/1080p with a simple 2:3 downscale. This resolution has found some use in tablets and modern, high-pixel-density mobile phones, as well as small-format "netbook" or "ultralight" laptop computers. However, its use is uncommon in larger, mainstream devices as it has insufficient vertical resolution for the proper use of modern operating systems such as Windows 7 whose UI design assumes a minimum of 768 lines. For certain uses such as word processing, it can even be considered a slight downgrade.
- The second variant,, can be seen as a compromise resolution that addressed this problem, as well as a halfway point between the older and resolutions, and a stepping stone to and, that never quite caught on in the same way as either of its arguably derivative successors. Its square-pixel aspect ratio is 15:9, in contrast to HDTV's 16:9 and 's 16:10. It is also the lowest resolution that might be found in an "Ultrabook" standard laptop, as it satisfies the minimum horizontal and vertical pixel resolutions required to officially qualify for the designation.
- Other mentionable resolutions are with 3:2 aspect ratio, and with 7:4 aspect ratio.
- Some resolution displays have also been found labeled as WXGA; however, the correct label is actually [|WSXGA or WXGA+].
Historically, the resolution also relates to the earlier standard of pixels, which was adopted by Sun Microsystems for the Sun-2 workstation in the early 1980s. A decade later, Apple Computer selected the resolution of for their 21-inch CRT monitors, intended for use as two-page displays on the Macintosh II computer. These resolutions are even closer to the limit of a 1MB framebuffer, but their aspect ratios differ slightly from the common 4:3.
XGA+ is the next step after XGA, although it is not approved by any standard organizations. The next step with an aspect ratio of 4:3 is or SXGA+.
(WXGA+, WSXGA)WXGA+ and WSXGA are non-standard terms referring to a computer display resolution of. Occasionally manufacturers use other terms to refer to this resolution. The Standard Panels Working Group refers to the resolution as WXGA.
WSXGA and WXGA+ can be considered enhanced versions of WXGA with more pixels, or as widescreen variants of SXGA. The aspect ratios of each are .
WXGA+ resolution is common in 19-inch widescreen desktop monitors, and is also optional, although less common, in laptop LCDs, in sizes ranging from 12.1 to 17 inches.
Another resolution going by this name is, at an aspect ratio of 15:10.
(SXGA)Super XGA is a standard monitor resolution of pixels. This display resolution is the "next step" above the XGA resolution that IBM developed in 1990.
The resolution is not the standard 4:3 aspect ratio, but 5:4. A standard 4:3 monitor using this resolution will have rectangular rather than square pixels, meaning that unless the software compensates for this the picture will be distorted, causing circles to appear elliptical.
There is a less common resolution that preserves the common 4:3 aspect ratio. It is sometimes unofficially called SXGA− to avoid confusion with the "standard" SXGA. Elsewhere this 4:3 resolution was also called UVGA, or SXVGA : Since both sides are doubled from VGA the term Quad VGA would be a systematic one, but it is hardly ever used, because its initialism QVGA is strongly associated with the alternate meaning Quarter VGA.
SXGA is the most common native resolution of 17 inch and 19 inch LCD monitors. An LCD monitor with SXGA native resolution will typically have a physical 5:4 aspect ratio, preserving a 1:1 pixel aspect ratio.
Sony manufactured a 17-inch CRT monitor with a 5:4 aspect ratio designed for this resolution. It was sold under the Apple brand name.
SXGA is also a popular resolution for cell phone cameras, such as the Motorola Razr and most Samsung and LG phones. Although being taken over by newer UXGA cameras, the 1.3-megapixel was the most common around 2007.
Any CRT that can run can also run, which has the standard 4:3 ratio. A flat panel TFT screen, including one designed for, will show stretching distortion when set to display any resolution other than its native one, as the image needs to be interpolated to fit in the fixed grid display. Some TFT displays do not allow a user to disable this, and will prevent the upper and lower portions of the screen from being used forcing a "letterbox" format when set to a 4:3 ratio.
The resolution became popular because at 24bit/px color depth it fit well into 4 megabytes of video RAM. At the time, memory was extremely expensive. Using at 24-bit color depth allowed using 3.75MB of video RAM, fitting nicely with VRAM chip sizes which were available at the time :
(SXGA+)SXGA+ stands for Super Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard. An SXGA+ display is commonly used on 14-inch or 15-inch laptop LCD screens with a resolution of pixels. An SXGA+ display is used on a few 12-inch laptop screens such as the ThinkPad X60 and X61 as well as the Toshiba Portégé M200 and M400, but those are far less common. At 14.1 inches, Dell offered SXGA+ on many of the Dell Latitude "C" series laptops, such as the C640, and IBM since the ThinkPad T21. Sony also used SXGA+ in their Z1 series, but no longer produce them as widescreen has become more predominant.
In desktop LCDs, SXGA+ is used on some low-end 20-inch monitors, whereas most of the 20-inch LCDs use UXGA, or WSXGA+.
(WSXGA+)WSXGA+ stands for Widescreen Super Extended Graphics Array Plus. WSXGA+ displays were commonly used on Widescreen 20-, 21-, and 22-inch LCD monitors from numerous manufacturers, as well as widescreen 15.4-inch and 17-inch laptop LCD screens like the Thinkpad T61p, the late 17" Apple PowerBook G4 and the unibody Apple 15" MacBook Pro. The resolution is pixels with a 16:10 aspect ratio.
WSXGA+ is the widescreen version of SXGA+, but it is not approved by any organization. The next highest resolution after it is WUXGA, which is pixels.
(UXGA, UGA)UXGA or UGA is an abbreviation for Ultra Extended Graphics Array referring to a standard monitor resolution of pixels, which is exactly four times the default resolution of SVGA . Dell Inc. refers to the same resolution of 1,920,000 pixels as UGA. It is generally considered to be the next step above SXGA, but some resolutions fit between the two.
UXGA has been the native resolution of many fullscreen monitors of 15 inches or more, including laptop LCDs such as the ones in ThinkPad A21p, A30p, A31p, T42p, T43p, T60p, Dell Inspiron 8000/8100/8200 and Latitude/Precision equivalents; Panasonic Toughbook CF-51; and the original Alienware Area 51m. However, in more recent times, UXGA is not used in laptops at all but rather in desktop UXGA monitors that have been made in sizes of 20 inches and 21.3 inches. Some 14-inch laptop LCDs with UXGA have also existed, but these were very rare.
There are two different widescreen cousins of UXGA, one called UWXGA with and one called WUXGA with resolution.
(WUXGA)WUXGA stands for Widescreen Ultra Extended Graphics Array and is a display resolution of pixels with a 16:10 screen aspect ratio. It is a wide version of UXGA, and can be used for viewing high-definition television content, which uses a 16:9 aspect ratio and a or resolution.
The 16:10 aspect ratio was chosen because this aspect ratio is appropriate for displaying two full pages of text side by side.
WUXGA resolution has a total of 2,304,000 pixels. An uncompressed 8-bit RGB WUXGA image has a size of 6.75MB. As of 2014, this resolution is available in a few high-end LCD televisions and computer monitors, although in the past it was used in a wider variety of displays, including 17-inch laptops. WUXGA use predates the introduction of LCDs of that resolution. Most QXGA displays support and widescreen CRTs such as the Sony GDM-FW900 and Hewlett Packard A7217A do as well. WUXGA is also available in some of the more high end mobile phablet devices such as the Huawei Honor X2 Gem.
The next lower resolution before it is WSXGA+, which is pixels ; the next higher resolution widescreen is an unnamed resolution and then the more common WQXGA, which has pixels.
Quad Extended Graphics ArrayThe QXGA, or Quad Extended Graphics Array, display standard is a resolution standard in display technology. Some examples of LCD monitors that have pixel counts at these levels are the Dell 3008WFP, the Apple Cinema Display, the Apple iMac, the iPad, and the MacBook Pro. Many standard 21–22-inch CRT monitors and some of the highest-end 19-inch CRTs also support this resolution.
(QWXGA)QWXGA is a display resolution of pixels with a aspect ratio. A few QWXGA LCD monitors were available in 2009 with 23- and 27-inch displays, such as the Acer B233HU and B273HU, the Dell SP2309W, and the Samsung 2343BWX. As of 2011, most monitors have been discontinued, and as of 2013 no major manufacturer produces monitors with this resolution.
(QXGA)QXGA is a display resolution of pixels with a aspect ratio. The name comes from it having four times as many pixels as an XGA display. Examples of LCDs with this resolution are the IBM T210 and the Eizo G33 and R31 screens, but in CRT monitors this resolution is much more common; some examples include the Sony F520, ViewSonic G225fB, NEC FP2141SB or Mitsubishi DP2070SB, Iiyama Vision Master Pro 514, and Dell and HP P1230. Of these monitors, none are still in production. A related display size is WQXGA, which is a wide screen version. CRTs offer a way to achieve QXGA cheaply. Models like the Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 2045U and IBM ThinkVision C220P retailed for around US$200, and even higher performance ones like the ViewSonic PerfectFlat P220fB remained under $500. At one time, many off-lease P1230s could be found on eBay for under $150. The LCDs with WQXGA or QXGA resolution typically cost four to five times more for the same resolution. IDTech manufactured a 15-inch QXGA IPS panel, used in the IBM ThinkPad R50p. NEC sold laptops with QXGA screens in 2002–05 for the Japanese market. The iPad also has a QXGA display.
(WQXGA)WQXGA is a display resolution of pixels with a 16:10 aspect ratio. The name comes from it being a wide version of QXGA and having four times as many pixels as an WXGA display.
To obtain a vertical refresh rate higher than 40Hz with DVI, this resolution requires dual-link DVI cables and devices. To avoid cable problems monitors are sometimes shipped with an appropriate dual link cable already plugged in. Many video cards support this resolution. One feature that is currently unique to the 30inch WQXGA monitors is the ability to function as the centerpiece and main display of a three-monitor array of complementary aspect ratios, with two UXGA 20-inch monitors turned vertically on either side. The resolutions are equal, and the size of the 1600 resolution edges is within a tenth of an inch, presenting a "picture window view" without the extreme lateral dimensions, small central panel, asymmetry, resolution differences, or dimensional difference of other three-monitor combinations. The resulting composite image has a 3.1:1 aspect ratio. This also means one UXGA 20-inch monitor in portrait orientation can also be flanked by two 30-inch WQXGA monitors for a composite image with an 11.85:3 aspect ratio. Some WQXGA medical displays can also be configured as two virtual or seamless displays by using both DVI ports at the same time.
An early consumer WQXGA monitor was the 30-inch Apple Cinema Display, unveiled by Apple in June 2004. At the time, dual-link DVI was uncommon on consumer hardware, so Apple partnered with Nvidia to develop a special graphics card that had two dual-link DVI ports, allowing simultaneous use of two 30-inch Apple Cinema Displays. The nature of this graphics card, being an add-in AGP card, meant that the monitors could only be used in a desktop computer, like the Power Mac G5, that could have the add-in card installed, and could not be immediately used with laptop computers that lacked this expansion capability.
In 2010, WQXGA made its debut in a handful of home theater projectors targeted at the Constant Height Screen application market. Both Digital Projection Inc and projectiondesign released models based on a Texas Instruments DLP chip with a native WQXGA resolution, alleviating the need for an anamorphic lens to achieve 1:2.35 image projection. Many manufacturers have 27–30-inch models that are capable of WQXGA, albeit at a much higher price than lower resolution monitors of the same size. Several mainstream WQXGA monitors are or were available with 30-inch displays, such as the Dell 3007WFP-HC, 3008WFP, U3011, U3014, UP3017, the Hewlett-Packard LP3065, the Gateway XHD3000, LG W3000H, and the Samsung 305T. Specialist manufacturers like NEC, Eizo, Planar Systems, Barco, and possibly others offer similar models. As of 2016, LG Display make a 10-bit 30-inch AH-IPS panel, with wide color gamut, used in monitors from Dell, NEC, HP, Lenovo and Iiyama.
Released in November 2012, Google's Nexus 10 is the first consumer tablet to feature WQXGA resolution. Before its release, the highest resolution available on a tablet was QXGA, available on the Apple iPad 3rd and 4th generations devices. Several Samsung Galaxy tablets, including the Note 10.1, Tab S 8.4, 10.5 and TabPRO 8.4, 10.1 and Note Pro 12.2, as well as the Gigaset QV1030, also feature a WQXGA resolution display.
In 2012, Apple released the 13 inch MacBook Pro with Retina Display that features a WQXGA display, and the new MacBook Air in 2018.
(QSXGA)QSXGA is a display resolution of pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio. Grayscale monitors with a resolution, primarily for medical use, are available from Planar Systems, Eizo, Barco, WIDE, IDTech, and possibly others.
Recent medical displays such as Barco Coronis Fusion 10MP or NDS Dome S10 have native panel resolution of. These are driven by two dual-link DVI or DisplayPort outputs. They can be considered to be two seamless virtual QSXGA displays as they have to be driven simultaneously by both dual link DVI or DisplayPort since one dual link DVI or DisplayPort cannot single-handedly display 10 megapixels. A similar resolution of was supported by a small number of CRT displays via VGA such as the Viewsonic P225f when paired with the right graphics card.
(WQSXGA)WQSXGA describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to pixels, assuming a 1.5625:1 aspect ratio. The Coronis Fusion 6MP DL by Barco supports .
(QUXGA)QUXGA describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to pixels, assuming a 4:3 aspect ratio.
(WQUXGA)WQUXGA describes a display standard that supports a resolution of pixels, which provides a 16:10 aspect ratio. This resolution is exactly four times .
Most display cards with a DVI connector are capable of supporting the resolution. However, the maximum refresh rate will be limited by the number of DVI links which are connected to the monitor. 1, 2, or 4 DVI connectors are used to drive the monitor using various tile configurations. Only the IBM T221-DG5 and IDTech MD22292B5 support the use of dual-link DVI ports through an external converter box. Many systems using these monitors use at least two DVI connectors to send video to the monitor. These DVI connectors can be from the same graphics card, different graphics cards, or even different computers. Motion across the tile boundary can show tearing if the DVI links are not synchronized. The display panel can be updated at a speed between 0Hz and 41Hz. The refresh rate of the video signal can be higher than 41Hz but the monitor will not update the display any faster even if graphics card do so.
In June 2001, WQUXGA was introduced in the IBM T220 LCD monitor using a LCD panel built by IDTech. LCD displays that support WQUXGA resolution include: IBM T220, IBM T221, Iiyama AQU5611DTBK, ViewSonic VP2290, ADTX MD22292B, and IDTech MD22292. IDTech was the original equipment manufacturer which sold these monitors to ADTX, IBM, Iiyama, and ViewSonic. However, none of the WQUXGA monitors are in production anymore: they had prices that were well above even the higher end displays used by graphic professionals, and the lower refresh rates, 41Hz and 48Hz, made them less attractive for many applications.
Unsystematic resolutionsAfter having been using VGA-based 3:2 resolutions HVGA and Retina DVGA for several years in their iPhone and iPod products with screen diagonal of 9 cm or 3.5 inch, Apple started using more exotic variants when they adopted the 16:9 aspect ratio in order to provide a consistent pixel density across screen sizes: first 1136 × 640 with the iPhone 5 for 10-cm or 4-inch screens, and later 1334 × 750 with the iPhone 6 for 12-cm or 4.7-inch screens, while devices with 14-cm or 5.5-inch screens used standard 1920 × 1080. The iPhone X introduced a 2436 × 1125 resolution at an aspect ratio of roughly 13:6 or, for marketing, 19.5:9.
Other manufacturers have also introduced phones with irregular display resolutions and aspect ratios, e.g. Samsung's various Infinity displays with 37:18 = :9, i.e. 2960 × 1440 or 2220 × 1080, and 19:9 aspect ratios: 3040 × 1440 and 2280 × 1080.