Court of Justice of the European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union is the judicial branch of the European Union. Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. From 2005 to 2016 it also consisted of the Civil Service Tribunal. It has a sui generis court system, meaning ’of its own kind’, and is a supranational institution.
CJEU is the chief judicial authority of the European Union and oversees the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law, in co-operation with the national judiciary of the member states. CJEU also resolves legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions, and may take action against EU institutions on behalf of individuals, companies or organisations whose rights have been infringed.


CJEU consists of two major courts:
  1. the Court of Justice, informally known as European Court of Justice which hears applications from national courts for preliminary rulings, annulment and appeals. It consists of one judge from each EU member country, as well as 11 advocates general.
  2. the General Court, which hears applications for annulment from individuals, companies and, less commonly, national governments. It is made up of 47 judges, which is to be increased to 56 in 2019.


CJEU's specific mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties of the European Union. To achieve this, it:
CJEU was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities.
The General Court was created in 1988 and the Civil Service Tribunal was created in 2004.
With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court system obtained its current name, while the original court itself was renamed "Court of Justice".
The working language of the Court of Justice of the European Union is French.