A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not the head of state of their respective state nor a monarch, rather they are the head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms or a president in a republican form of government.
In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or their official representative usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers.
In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament.
As well as being head of government, being prime minister may require holding other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. In some cases, prime ministers may choose to hold additional ministerial posts : during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defence. Another example is the Thirty-fourth government of Israel, when Benjamin Netanyahu at one point served as the Prime Minister and those of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation, Economy, Defense and Interior.
EtymologyThe term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624. The title was however informal and used alongside the equally informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use.
The term prime minister in the current sense originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century.
OriginsThe monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I; Clarendon under Charles II and Godolphin under Queen Anne. These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and finally the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings.
When the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power.
DevelopmentIn the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch then gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689. The monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government. It is at this point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.
A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government.
From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole, who held office for twenty-one years. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, and also that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign. As a later prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Walpole always denied that he was "prime minister", and throughout the 18th century parliamentarians and legal scholars continued to deny that any such position was known to the Constitution. George II and George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. The long tenure of the wartime prime minister William Pitt the Younger, combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence until 1905.
The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the British Empire saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government. In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same.
Modern usageBy the late 20th century, the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. The main exceptions to this system have been the United States and the presidential republics in Latin America modelled on the U.S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority.
Bahrain's prime minister, Sheikh Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah has been in the post since 1970, making him the longest serving non-elected prime minister.
Overview of the Office
In monarchies and in republicsThe post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies and in parliamentary republics, in which the head of state is an elected official, Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Turkey ). See also "First Minister", "Premier", "Chief Minister", "Chancellor", "Taoiseach", "Minister of State ", "President of the Government", "President of the Council of Minister" and "Secretary of State": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister".
This contrasts with the presidential system, in which the president is both the head of state and the head of the government. In some presidential and all semi-presidential systems, such as those of France, Russia or South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. The head of government of the People's Republic of China is referred to as the Premier of the State Council and the premier of the Republic of China is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature.
Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament may force the resignation of the government. In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as cohabitation.
Entry into officeIn parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means.
- The head of state appoints a prime minister, of their personal choice: Example: France, where the President has the power to appoint the Prime Minister of their choice, though the National Assembly can force a government to resign, they cannot nominate or appoint a new candidate.
- The head of state appoints a prime minister who has a set timescale within which they must gain a vote of confidence: Example: Italy, Romania, Thailand
- The head of state appoints a prime minister from among the members of Parliament, who then has a set timescale within which they must form a cabinet, and receive the confidence of Parliament after presenting the Cabinet Composition and Legislative Program to Parliament: Example: Israel
- The head of state appoints the leader of the political party with the majority of the seats in the Parliament as Prime Minister. If no party has a majority, then the leader of the party with a plurality of seats is given an exploratory mandate to receive the confidence of the parliament within three days. If this is not possible, then the leader of the party with the second highest seat number is given the exploratory mandate. If this fails, then the leader of the third largest party is given it and so on: Example: Greece, see Prime Minister of Greece
- The head of state nominates a candidate for prime minister who is then submitted to parliament for approval before appointment as prime minister: Example: Spain, where the King sends a nomination to parliament for approval. Also Germany where under the German Basic Law the Bundestag votes on a candidate nominated by the federal president. In the Philippines under the 1973 Constitution as amended after martial law, the Prime Minister was elected by the Batasang Pambansâ upon nomination by the President. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state.
- Parliament nominates a candidate who the head of state is then constitutionally obliged to appoint as prime minister: Example: Ireland, where the President appoints the Taoiseach on the nomination of Dáil Éireann. Also Japan.
- Election by the Legislature: Example: The Philippines under the unamended 1973 Constitution, where the prime minister was supposed to be elected by the Batasang Pambansâ; these provisions were never used because the Philippines was under martial law at the time. Also Vanuatu.
- Direct election by popular vote: Example: Israel, 1996–2001, where the prime minister was elected in a general election, with no regard to political affiliation.
- Nomination by a state office holder other than the head of state or his/her representative: Example: Under the modern Swedish Instrument of Government, the power to appoint someone to form a government has been moved from the monarch to the Speaker of Parliament and the parliament itself. The speaker nominates a candidate, who is then elected to prime minister by the parliament if an absolute majority of the members of parliament does not vote no.
Exit from office
Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office of the parliament. Hence the Irish Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.
In parliamentary systems, governments are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament. Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose supply, most constitutional systems require either:
The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the electorate. However, in many jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution.
Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet. In the United Kingdom, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council.
In Australia, the Prime Minister is expected to step down if they loses the majority support of their party under a spill motion as have many such as Tony Abbott, Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd and Malcolm Turnbull.
Organisational structureThe Prime Minister's executive office is usually called the Office of the Prime Minister or Cabinet Office. The U.K.’s Cabinet Office includes the Prime Minister’s Office. Conversely, some Prime Minister's Offices incorporate the role of Cabinet, while Australia’s Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet joins them at par. In Israel, the Prime Minister's executive office is officially titled the "Prime Minister's Office" in English, but the original Hebrew term can also be translated as the Prime Minister's Ministry. The Prime Minister's Department is also used, as is Cabinet Department.
Description of the role, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows:
Cross-country comparative details
TitlesIn the Russian constitution the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the Taoiseach, and in Israel he or she is Rosh HaMemshalah, meaning "head of the government". In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government.
Other common forms include president of the council of ministers, President of the Executive Council, or Minister-President. In the Nordic countries the prime minister is called Statsminister, meaning "Minister of State". In federations, the head of government of a federated entity is most commonly known as the premier, chief minister, governor or minister-president.
The convention in the English language is to call nearly all national heads of government "prime minister" except in the cases where the head of state and head of government are fused into one position, usually a presidency, regardless of the correct title of the head of government as applied in his or her respective country. The few exceptions to the rule are Germany and Austria, whose heads of government titles are almost always translated as Chancellor; Monaco, whose head of government is referred to as the Minister of State; and Vatican City, for which the head of government is titled the Secretary of State. In the case of Ireland, the head of government is occasionally referred to as the Taoiseach by English speakers. A stand-out case is the President of Iran, who is not actually a head of state, but the head of the government of Iran. He is referred to as "president" in both the Persian and English languages.
In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of Excellency like a president. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled Right Honourable due to their position. In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a privilege of being current members of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.
In the UK, where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the Scottish, Northern Irish and Welsh Governments are styled First Minister. Between 1921 and 1972, when Northern Ireland was a Majority Rule Parliament the head of government would be known as the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. In India, the Prime Minister is called Pradhān Mantrī, literally meaning the Head of ministers or Prime Minister. In Pakistan, the prime minister is referred to as Wazir-e-Azam, meaning "Grand Vizier".
|Canada||English : Prime Minister |
French : Premier ministre
|Finland||Finnish : Suomen pääministeri |
Swedish : Finlands statsminister
|Greece||Prothypourgós tis Ellinikís Dimokratías|
|Greenland||Greenlandic : Naalakkersuisut siulittaasuat |
Danish : Landsstyreformand
|India||Hindi: प्रधान मंत्री, Pradhān Mantrī|
|Israel||Hebrew : רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala |
Arabic : رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma
|Malta||Prim Ministru ta' Malta|
|Montenegro||Premijer Crne Gore|
|Netherlands||Minister-president van Nederland|
|Poland||Prezes Rady Ministrów|
|Romania||Prim-ministrul Guvernului României|
|Russia||Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii|
|Singapore||Malay : Perdana Menteri Republik Singapura |
Chinese : 新加坡共和国总理, Xīnjiāpō gònghéguó zǒnglǐ
Tamil : சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசின் பிரதமர், Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaraciṉ piratamar
|South Korea||Hangul : 국무총리 |
Hanja : 國務總理
RR : Gungmuchongni
|Sri Lanka||Sinhala : ශ්රී ලංකා අග්රාමාත්ය Śrī Laṃkā agrāmāthya |
Tamil : இலங்கை பிரதமர் Ilaṅkai piratamar
|Thailand||นายกรัฐมนตรี, Nayok Ratthamontri|
Constitutional basis for the position in different countriesThe position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution.
Australia's constitution makes no mention of a Prime Minister of Australia and the office only exists by convention, based on the British model.
Bangladesh's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.
The People's Republic of China constitution set a premier just one place below the National People's Congress in China. Premier read as in Chinese.
Canada has a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution, partly formally codified and partly uncodified. The codified part originally made no reference whatsoever to a prime minister and still gives no parameters of the office. Instead, her or his powers, duties, appointment and termination follow uncodified conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 only establishes the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, to which all federal ministers are appointed and with Members of which the Monarch or her Governor General normally performs executive government
Czech Republic's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.
France's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of France.
Germany's Basic Law lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal chancellor.
Greece's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Greece.
Hungary's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Hungary.
India's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of India. In India, prime ministerial candidates must be a member of parliament, i.e. of either the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha. No parliamentary vote takes place on who forms a government.
Ireland's constitution, provides for the office of Taoiseach in detail, listing powers, functions and duties.
Italy's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Council of Ministers.
Japan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Japan.
The Republic of Korea's constitution sections 86–87 list the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea.
Malta's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malta.
Malaysia's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Norway's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Norway
Pakistan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Spain's constitution regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the President of the Government.
Thailand's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Thailand.
Taiwan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Executive Yuan.
The United Kingdom's constitution, being uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a prime minister. Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist"; indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer.
During the period between the time it is clear that the incumbent government has been defeated at a general election, and the actual swearing-in of the new prime minister by the monarch, governor-general, or president, that person is referred to as the "prime minister-elect" or "prime minister-designate". Neither term is strictly correct from a constitutional point of view, but they have wide acceptance. In a situation in which a ruling party elects or appoints a new leader, the incoming leader will usually be referred as "prime minister-in-waiting". An example or this situation was in 2016 in the United Kingdom when Theresa May was elected leader of the Conservative Party while David Cameron was still prime minister.
Ukraine's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Ukraine.
Lists of prime ministersThe following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists.
|Term given by|
years or dates
|Andorra||1982||-||years||Xavier Espot Zamora|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1981||-||years||Gaston Browne|
|Bahrain||1970||-||years||Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa|
|Bermuda||1968||yes||dates||Edward David Burt|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1943||-||dates||Zoran Tegeltija|
|British Virgin Islands||1967||yes||dates||Orlando Smith|
|Brunei||1984||no||dates||Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah|
|Burkina Faso||1971||-||dates||Christophe Joseph Marie Dabiré|
|Cape Verde||1975||yes||dates||Ulisses Correia e Silva|
|Cayman Islands||1992||yes||dates||Alden McLaughlin|
|Central African Republic||1958||-||dates||Firmin Ngrébada|
|People's Republic of China||1949||-||dates||Li Keqiang|
|Cook Islands||1965||yes||dates||Henry Puna|
|Cuba||1940||-||dates||Manuel Marrero Cruz|
|Northern Cyprus||1983||yes||dates||Ersin Tatar|
|Czech Republic||1993||-||years||Andrej Babiš|
|Djibouti||1977||-||dates||Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed|
|East Timor||2002||yes||dates||Taur Matan Ruak|
|Equatorial Guinea||1963||-||dates||Francisco Pascual Obama Asue|
|Faroe Islands||1946||-||years||Bárður á Steig Nielsen|
|Gabon||1957||yes||dates||Julien Nkoghe Bekale|
|Guernsey||2007||-||dates||Gavin St Pier|
|Guinea||1972||-||dates||Ibrahima Kassory Fofana|
|Guinea-Bissau||1973||-||dates||Nuno Gomes Nabiam|
|Jersey||2005||-||dates||John Le Fondré Jr|
|North Korea||1948||-||years||Kim Jae-ryong|
|South Korea||1948||-||years||Chung Sye-kyun|
|Kuwait||1962||yes||dates||Sheikh Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Sabah|
|Libya||1951||-||dates||Abdullah al-Thani / Fayez al-Sarraj|
|Isle of Man||1986||-||years||Howard Quayle|
|Mauritania||1957||yes||dates||Ismail Ould Bedde Ould Cheikh Sidiya|
|Mozambique||1974||yes||dates||Carlos Agostinho do Rosário|
|Myanmar||1948||yes||dates||Aung San Suu Kyi|
|Nepal||1803||-||dates||KP Sharma Oli|
|New Zealand||1856||yes||dates||Jacinda Ardern|
|Niue||1974||-||dates||Sir Toke Talagi|
|North Macedonia||1943||yes||dates||Oliver Spasovski|
|Papua New Guinea||1975||yes||years||James Marape|
|Qatar||1970||-||dates||Sheikh Khalid bin Khalifa bin Abdul Aziz Al Thani|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||1960||-||dates||Timothy Harris|
|Saint Lucia||1960||-||dates||Allen Chastanet|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1956||-||dates||Ralph Gonsalves|
|Samoa||1875||yes||dates||Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi|
|São Tomé and Principe||1974||yes||dates||Jorge Bom Jesus|
|Saudi Arabia||1953||no||dates||King Salman|
|Sierra Leone||1954||yes||dates||David J. Francis|
|Singapore||1959||-||dates||Lee Hsien Loong|
|Sint Maarten||2010||-||dates||Silveria Jacobs|
|Solomon Islands||1949||yes||dates||Manasseh Sogavare|
|Somalia||1949||yes||dates||Hassan Ali Khayre|
|South Ossetia||1991||-||dates||Erik Pukhayev|
|Sri Lanka||1948||-||dates||Mahinda Rajapaksa|
|Swaziland||1967||-||years||Mandvulo Ambrose Dlamini|
|Togo||1956||yes||dates||Komi Sélom Klassou|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1956||-||dates||Keith Rowley|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||1976||yes||dates||Sharlene Cartwright-Robinson|
|United Arab Emirates||1971||-||years||Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|United Kingdom||1721||yes||dates||Boris Johnson|
|Vatican||1644||-||years||Cardinal Pietro Parolin|
|Vietnam||1976||yes||dates||Nguyễn Xuân Phúc|
|Yemen||1990||yes||years||Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed|
|Western Sahara||1976||no||years||Mohamed Wali Akeik|