Prime minister

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not the head of state of their respective state nor a monarch, rather they are the head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms or a president in a republican form of government.
In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or their official representative usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers.
In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament.
As well as being head of government, being prime minister may require holding other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. In some cases, prime ministers may choose to hold additional ministerial posts : during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defence. Another example is the Thirty-fourth government of Israel, when Benjamin Netanyahu at one point served as the Prime Minister and those of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation, Economy, Defense and Interior.


The term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624. The title was however informal and used alongside the equally informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use.
The term prime minister in the current sense originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century.



The monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I; Clarendon under Charles II and Godolphin under Queen Anne. These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and finally the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings.
When the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power.


In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch then gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689. The monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government. It is at this point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.
A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government.
From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole, who held office for twenty-one years. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, and also that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign. As a later prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Walpole always denied that he was "prime minister", and throughout the 18th century parliamentarians and legal scholars continued to deny that any such position was known to the Constitution. George II and George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. The long tenure of the wartime prime minister William Pitt the Younger, combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence until 1905.
The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the British Empire saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government. In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same.

Modern usage

By the late 20th century, the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. The main exceptions to this system have been the United States and the presidential republics in Latin America modelled on the U.S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority.
Bahrain's prime minister, Sheikh Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah has been in the post since 1970, making him the longest serving non-elected prime minister.

Overview of the Office

In monarchies and in republics

The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies and in parliamentary republics, in which the head of state is an elected official, Ireland, Pakistan, Portugal, Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Turkey ). See also "First Minister", "Premier", "Chief Minister", "Chancellor", "Taoiseach", "Minister of State ", "President of the Government", "President of the Council of Minister" and "Secretary of State": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister".
This contrasts with the presidential system, in which the president is both the head of state and the head of the government. In some presidential and all semi-presidential systems, such as those of France, Russia or South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. The head of government of the People's Republic of China is referred to as the Premier of the State Council and the premier of the Republic of China is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature.
Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament may force the resignation of the government. In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as cohabitation.

Entry into office

In parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means.
Most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments. For example, Margaret Thatcher was only ever appointed prime minister on one occasion, in 1979. She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons after a general election to reshuffle her cabinet.
Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office of the parliament. Hence the Irish Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.
In parliamentary systems, governments are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament. Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose supply, most constitutional systems require either:
The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the electorate. However, in many jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution.
Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet. In the United Kingdom, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council.
In Australia, the Prime Minister is expected to step down if they loses the majority support of their party under a spill motion as have many such as Tony Abbott, Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd and Malcolm Turnbull.

Organisational structure

The Prime Minister's executive office is usually called the Office of the Prime Minister or Cabinet Office. The U.K.’s Cabinet Office includes the Prime Minister’s Office. Conversely, some Prime Minister's Offices incorporate the role of Cabinet, while Australia’s Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet joins them at par. In Israel, the Prime Minister's executive office is officially titled the "Prime Minister's Office" in English, but the original Hebrew term can also be translated as the Prime Minister's Ministry. The Prime Minister's Department is also used, as is Cabinet Department.

Description of the role

, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows:

Cross-country comparative details


In the Russian constitution the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the Taoiseach, and in Israel he or she is Rosh HaMemshalah, meaning "head of the government". In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government.
Other common forms include president of the council of ministers, President of the Executive Council, or Minister-President. In the Nordic countries the prime minister is called Statsminister, meaning "Minister of State". In federations, the head of government of a federated entity is most commonly known as the premier, chief minister, governor or minister-president.
The convention in the English language is to call nearly all national heads of government "prime minister" except in the cases where the head of state and head of government are fused into one position, usually a presidency, regardless of the correct title of the head of government as applied in his or her respective country. The few exceptions to the rule are Germany and Austria, whose heads of government titles are almost always translated as Chancellor; Monaco, whose head of government is referred to as the Minister of State; and Vatican City, for which the head of government is titled the Secretary of State. In the case of Ireland, the head of government is occasionally referred to as the Taoiseach by English speakers. A stand-out case is the President of Iran, who is not actually a head of state, but the head of the government of Iran. He is referred to as "president" in both the Persian and English languages.
In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of Excellency like a president. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled Right Honourable due to their position. In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a privilege of being current members of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.
In the UK, where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the Scottish, Northern Irish and Welsh Governments are styled First Minister. Between 1921 and 1972, when Northern Ireland was a Majority Rule Parliament the head of government would be known as the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. In India, the Prime Minister is called Pradhān Mantrī, literally meaning the Head of ministers or Prime Minister. In Pakistan, the prime minister is referred to as Wazir-e-Azam, meaning "Grand Vizier".
BulgariaМинистър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel
CanadaEnglish : Prime Minister
French : Premier ministre
DenmarkDanmarks statsminister
Faroe IslandsLøgmaður
FinlandFinnish : Suomen pääministeri
Swedish : Finlands statsminister
GreeceProthypourgós tis Ellinikís Dimokratías
GreenlandGreenlandic : Naalakkersuisut siulittaasuat
Danish : Landsstyreformand
IcelandForsætisráðherra Íslands
IndiaHindi: प्रधान मंत्री, Pradhān Mantrī
IsraelHebrew : רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala
Arabic : رئيس الحكومة‎, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma
Japan内閣総理大臣, Naikaku-sōri-daijin
LatviaMinistru prezidents
LithuaniaMinistras Pirmininkas
MalaysiaPerdana Menteri
MaltaPrim Ministru ta' Malta
MontenegroPremijer Crne Gore
NetherlandsMinister-president van Nederland
PolandPrezes Rady Ministrów
RomaniaPrim-ministrul Guvernului României
RussiaПредседатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii
SingaporeMalay : Perdana Menteri Republik Singapura
Chinese : 新加坡共和国总理, Xīnjiāpō gònghéguó zǒnglǐ
Tamil : சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசின் பிரதமர், Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaraciṉ piratamar
South KoreaHangul : 국무총리
Hanja : 國務總理
RR : Gungmuchongni
Sri LankaSinhala : ශ්‍රී ලංකා අග්‍රාමාත්‍ය Śrī Laṃkā agrāmāthya
Tamil : இலங்கை பிரதமர் Ilaṅkai piratamar
Thailandนายกรัฐมนตรี, Nayok Ratthamontri

Constitutional basis for the position in different countries

The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution.
Australia's constitution makes no mention of a Prime Minister of Australia and the office only exists by convention, based on the British model.
Bangladesh's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.
The People's Republic of China constitution set a premier just one place below the National People's Congress in China. Premier read as in Chinese.
Canada has a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution, partly formally codified and partly uncodified. The codified part originally made no reference whatsoever to a prime minister and still gives no parameters of the office. Instead, her or his powers, duties, appointment and termination follow uncodified conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 only establishes the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, to which all federal ministers are appointed and with Members of which the Monarch or her Governor General normally performs executive government
Czech Republic's constitution clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.
France's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of France.
Germany's Basic Law lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal chancellor.
Greece's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Greece.
Hungary's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Hungary.
India's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of India. In India, prime ministerial candidates must be a member of parliament, i.e. of either the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha. No parliamentary vote takes place on who forms a government.
Ireland's constitution, provides for the office of Taoiseach in detail, listing powers, functions and duties.
Italy's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Council of Ministers.
Japan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Japan.
The Republic of Korea's constitution sections 86–87 list the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea.
Malta's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malta.
Malaysia's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Norway's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Norway
Pakistan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Spain's constitution regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the President of the Government.
Thailand's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Thailand.
Taiwan's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the President of the Executive Yuan.
The United Kingdom's constitution, being uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a prime minister. Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist"; indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer.
During the period between the time it is clear that the incumbent government has been defeated at a general election, and the actual swearing-in of the new prime minister by the monarch, governor-general, or president, that person is referred to as the "prime minister-elect" or "prime minister-designate". Neither term is strictly correct from a constitutional point of view, but they have wide acceptance. In a situation in which a ruling party elects or appoints a new leader, the incoming leader will usually be referred as "prime minister-in-waiting". An example or this situation was in 2016 in the United Kingdom when Theresa May was elected leader of the Conservative Party while David Cameron was still prime minister.
Ukraine's constitution lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Ukraine.

Lists of prime ministers

The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists.
GovernmentList startsParties
Term given by
years or dates
Abkhazia1995-datesAlexander Ankvab
Afghanistan1927-yearsAbdullah Abdullah
Albania 1912-yearsEdi Rama
Algeria1962yesyearsAbdelaziz Djerad
Andorra1982-yearsXavier Espot Zamora
Anguilla1976yesdatesVictor Banks
Antigua and Barbuda1981-yearsGaston Browne
Argentina1993yesdatesSantiago Cafiero
Armenia1918yesdatesNikol Pashinyan
Aruba1986-datesEvelyn Wever-Croes
Australia 1901yesdatesScott Morrison
Austria1918yesyearsSebastian Kurz
Azerbaijan1918yesdatesAli Asadov
Bahamas1967-datesHubert Minnis
Bahrain1970-yearsPrince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa
Bangladesh1971yesdatesSheikh Hasina
Barbados1954yesdatesMia Mottley
Belarus1919-datesRoman Golovchenko
Belgium1831yesdatesSophie Wilmès
Belize1973yesyearsDean Barrow
Bermuda1968yesdatesEdward David Burt
Bhutan1952-datesLotay Tshering
Bosnia and Herzegovina1943-datesZoran Tegeltija
British Virgin Islands1967yesdatesOrlando Smith
Brunei1984nodatesSultan Hassanal Bolkiah
Bulgaria1879yesdatesBoyko Borisov
Burkina Faso1971-datesChristophe Joseph Marie Dabiré
Cambodia1945-yearsHun Sen
Cameroon1960-datesJoseph Ngute
Canada 1867yesdatesJustin Trudeau
Cape Verde1975yesdatesUlisses Correia e Silva
Cayman Islands1992yesdatesAlden McLaughlin
Central African Republic1958-datesFirmin Ngrébada
People's Republic of China 1949-datesLi Keqiang
Congo 1957yesdatesClément Mouamba
Congo 1960yesdatesSylvestre Ilunga
Cook Islands1965yesdatesHenry Puna
Côte d'Ivoire 1957yesdatesVacant
Croatia1939-datesAndrej Plenković
Cuba1940-datesManuel Marrero Cruz
Curaçao2010-datesEugene Rhuggenaath
Northern Cyprus1983yesdatesErsin Tatar
Czech Republic1993-yearsAndrej Babiš
Denmark 1848-yearsMette Frederiksen
Djibouti1977-datesAbdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
Dominica1960-datesRoosevelt Skerrit
East Timor2002yesdatesTaur Matan Ruak
Egypt 1878-yearsMoustafa Madbouly
Equatorial Guinea1963-datesFrancisco Pascual Obama Asue
Estonia1918-datesJüri Ratas
Ethiopia1942yesdatesAbiy Ahmed
Faroe Islands1946-yearsBárður á Steig Nielsen
Fiji1966-datesFrank Bainimarama
Finland1917yesyearsSanna Marin
France 1589-yearsÉdouard Philippe
Gabon1957yesdatesJulien Nkoghe Bekale
The Gambia1961-dates
Georgia1918yesdatesGiorgi Gakharia
Germany 1871/1949yesdatesAngela Merkel
Gibraltar1964yesdatesFabian Picardo
Greece 1833-datesKyriakos Mitsotakis
Greenland1979-yearsKim Kielsen
Grenada1954-yearsKeith Mitchell
Guernsey2007-datesGavin St Pier
Guinea1972-datesIbrahima Kassory Fofana
Guinea-Bissau1973-datesNuno Gomes Nabiam
Guyana1953-datesMoses Nagamootoo
Haiti1988-datesJoseph Joute
Hungary 1848-datesViktor Orbán
Iceland1904-datesKatrín Jakobsdóttir
India 1857yesdatesNarendra Modi
Iran 1624-years
Iraq1920-yearsMustafa Al-Kadhimi
Ireland1937yesdatesLeo Varadkar
Israel 1948-yearsBenjamin Netanyahu
Italy 1861-yearsGiuseppe Conte
Jamaica1959-yearsAndrew Holness
Japan 1885-datesShinzō Abe
Jersey2005-datesJohn Le Fondré Jr
Jordan1944-datesOmar Razzaz
Kazakhstan1920-yearsAskar Mamin
North Korea1948-yearsKim Jae-ryong
South Korea 1948-yearsChung Sye-kyun
Kosovo1945yesdatesAvdullah Hoti
Kuwait1962yesdatesSheikh Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Sabah
Kyrgyzstan1924-datesMuhammetkaliy Abulgaziyev
Laos1941-yearsThongloun Sisoulith
Latvia1918yesdatesKrišjānis Kariņš
Lebanon1926-datesHassan Diab
Lesotho1965yesdatesMoeketsi Majoro
Libya1951-datesAbdullah al-Thani / Fayez al-Sarraj
Liechtenstein1921yesdatesAdrian Hasler
Lithuania1918yesdatesSaulius Skvernelis
Luxembourg1959-yearsXavier Bettel
Madagascar1833-datesChristian Ntsay
Malaysia1957yesyearsMuhyiddin Yassin
Mali1957yesdatesBoubou Cisse
Malta1921yesyearsRobert Abela
Isle of Man1986-yearsHoward Quayle
Mauritania1957yesdatesIsmail Ould Bedde Ould Cheikh Sidiya
Mauritius1961yesdatesPravind Jugnauth
Moldova1990-datesMaia Sandu
Monaco1911n/adatesSerge Telle
Mongolia1912yesdatesUkhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Montenegro1879yesdatesDuško Marković
Montserrat1960yesdatesEaston Taylor-Farrell
Morocco1955yesyearsSaadeddine Othmani
Mozambique1974yesdatesCarlos Agostinho do Rosário
Myanmar 1948yesdatesAung San Suu Kyi
Namibia1990yesdatesSaara Kuugongelwa
Nepal1803-datesKP Sharma Oli
Netherlands 1848yesdatesMark Rutte
New Zealand 1856yesdatesJacinda Ardern
Niger1958yesdatesBrigi Rafini
Niue1974-datesSir Toke Talagi
Norfolk Island18962015dates
North Macedonia1943yesdatesOliver Spasovski
Norway1814yesyearsErna Solberg
Pakistan 1947yesdatesImran Khan
Palestine2003yesdatesRami Hamdallah
Papua New Guinea1975yesyearsJames Marape
Peru1975yesdatesVicente Zeballos
Poland 1918-datesMateusz Morawiecki
Portugal 1834yesdatesAntónio Costa
Qatar1970-datesSheikh Khalid bin Khalifa bin Abdul Aziz Al Thani
Romania1862-yearsLudovic Orban
Russia 1864/1905yesdatesMikhail Mishustin
Rwanda1960yesdatesÉdouard Ngirente
Saint Kitts and Nevis1960-datesTimothy Harris
Saint Lucia1960-datesAllen Chastanet
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1956-datesRalph Gonsalves
Samoa1875yesdatesTuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
São Tomé and Principe1974yesdatesJorge Bom Jesus
Saudi Arabia1953nodatesKing Salman
Serbia1805yesyearsAna Brnabić
Sierra Leone1954yesdatesDavid J. Francis
Singapore1959-datesLee Hsien Loong
Sint Maarten2010-datesSilveria Jacobs
Slovakia1993-datesIgor Matovič
Slovenia1943yesyearsJanez Janša
Solomon Islands1949yesdatesManasseh Sogavare
Somalia1949yesdatesHassan Ali Khayre
South Africa1910-dates
South Ossetia1991-datesErik Pukhayev
Spain 1705yesyearsPedro Sánchez
Sri Lanka 1948-datesMahinda Rajapaksa
Sudan1952yesdatesAbdalla Hamdok
Swaziland1967-yearsMandvulo Ambrose Dlamini
Sweden 1876yesyearsStefan Löfven
Syria1920-datesImad Khamis
Taiwan 1911-datesSu Tseng-chang
Tajikistan1924-datesKokhir Rasulzoda
Tanzania1960yesdatesKassim Majaliwa
Thailand 1932yesdatesPrayut Chan-o-cha
Togo1956yesdatesKomi Sélom Klassou
Tokelau1992-datesAfega Gaualofa
Tonga1876-yearsPohiva Tuʻiʻonetoa
Transnistria2012yesdatesAleksandr Martynov
Trinidad and Tobago1956-datesKeith Rowley
Tunisia1969-datesElyes Fakhfakh
Turkey 1920yesdates
Turks and Caicos Islands1976yesdatesSharlene Cartwright-Robinson
Tuvalu1975n/adatesKausea Natano
Uganda1961yesdatesRuhakana Rugunda
Ukraine 1917-datesDenys Shmyhal
United Arab Emirates1971-yearsSheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
United Kingdom 1721yesdatesBoris Johnson
UruguayNo List --
Uzbekistan1924-datesAbdulla Aripov
Vanuatu1980yesdatesBob Loughman
Vatican1644-yearsCardinal Pietro Parolin
Vietnam1976yesdatesNguyễn Xuân Phúc
Yemen1990yesyearsMaeen Abdulmalik Saeed
Western Sahara1976noyearsMohamed Wali Akeik