One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.


One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle, which was absent in Soviet society, and so the Soviet Union only had one party, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may allow non-party members to run for legislative seats, as was the case with Republic of China’s Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union.
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.
Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances:
  1. an ideology of Marxism–Leninism and international solidarity
  2. some type of nationalist or fascist ideology
  3. parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.
One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.
The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates.


Current one-party states

the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:
CountryHead of partyPartyHead of popular frontPopular frontDate of establishmentDuration
Democratic People's Republic of KoreaKim Jong-un, Chairman Workers' Party of KoreaPak Myong-chol, PresidentDemocratic Front for the Reunification of KoreaOctober 10, 1945
Lao People's Democratic RepublicBounnhang Vorachith, General Secretary Lao People's Revolutionary PartyXaysomphone Phomvihane, President of the Standing CommitteeLao Front for National ConstructionDecember 2, 1975
People's Republic of ChinaXi Jinping, General Secretary Communist Party of ChinaWang Yang, Chairman of National CPPCC
You Quan, Head of the Department
United FrontOctober 1, 1949
Republic of CubaRaúl Castro, First Secretary Communist Party of CubaJanuary 1, 1959
Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicBrahim Ghali, Secretary General Polisario FrontFebruary 27, 1976
Socialist Republic of VietnamNguyễn Phú Trọng, General Secretary Communist Party of VietnamTrần Thanh Mẫn, ChairmanVietnamese Fatherland FrontApril 30, 1975
State of EritreaIsaias Afwerki, Chairperson People's Front for Democracy and JusticeFebruary 10, 1994

Former one-party states