Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, smart speaker or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are 'mobile', the operating systems usually used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were originally designed for desktop computers that historically did not have or need specific mobile features. This distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses.
Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use,and usually including a wireless inbuilt modem and SIM tray for telephony and data connection. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Microsoft Windows, and in general smartphone use outnumbers desktop use.
Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systemsthe main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017 ; with even only the smartphones running them more used than any other kind of device. Thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS; see usage share of operating systems. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority also applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom.
TimelineMobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones, PDAs, and smartphones:
- 1973–1993 – Mobile phones use embedded systems to control operation.
- * April – PenPoint OS by GO Corporation becomes available on the AT&T EO Personal Communicator.
- * August – Apple launches Newton OS running on their Newton series of portable computers.
- * March – Magic Cap OS by General Magic is first introduced on the Sony Magic Link PDA.
- * August – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a touchscreen, email, and PDA features.
- * March – The Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is introduced with the Palm OS mobile operating system.
- * August – Nokia releases the Nokia 9000 Communicator running an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 OS from Geoworks.
- 1997 – EPOC32 first appears on the Psion Series 5 PDA. Release 6 of EPOC32 will later be renamed to Symbian OS.
- 1998 – Symbian Ltd. is formed as a joint venture by Psion, Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia, Psion's EPOC32 OS becomes Symbian's EPOC operating system, and is later renamed to Symbian OS. Symbian's OS was used by those companies and several other major mobile phone brands, but especially Nokia.
- * June – Qualcomm's pdQ becomes the first smartphone with Palm OS.
- * October – Nokia S40 Platform is officially introduced along with the Nokia 7110, the first phone with T9 Predictive text input and a Wireless Application Protocol browser for accessing specially formatted Internet data.
- 2000 – The Ericsson R380 is released with EPOC32 Release 5, marking the first use on a phone of what's to become known as Symbian OS.
- * June – Nokia's Symbian Series 80 platform is first released on the Nokia 9210 Communicator This is the first phone running an OS branded as Symbian, and the first phone using that OS that allows user installation of additional software.
- * September – Qualcomm's Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless platform on their REX real-time operating system is first released on the Kyocera QCP-3035.
- * March
- ** BlackBerry releases its first smartphone, running Java 2 Micro Edition.
- ** UIQ is first released, at v2.0, on Symbian OS, and becomes available later in the year on the Sony Ericsson P800, the successor to the Ericsson R380.
- * June
- ** Microsoft's first Windows CE smartphones are introduced.
- ** Nokia's Symbian Series 60 platform is released with the Nokia 7650, Nokia's first phone with a camera and Multimedia Messaging Service. S60 would form the basis of the OS on most of Nokia's smartphones until 2011, when they adopted Microsoft's Windows Phone 7. S60 was also used on some phones from Samsung and others, and later by Sony Ericsson after the consolidation of different Symbian UI variants in 2008.
- * October – The Danger Hiptop is first released by Danger, Inc., running DangerOS.
- 2003 – Motorola introduces first linux based cellphone Motorola A760 base on Linux MontaVista distribution.
- * May – Microsoft announces Windows Mobile 5.0.
- * November – Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the first, small Internet tablet, the N770, with a 4.13" screen.
- * January – Apple's iPhone with iOS is introduced as a "widescreen iPod," "mobile phone," and "Internet communicator".
- * February – Microsoft announces Windows Mobile 6.0.
- * May – Palm announces the Palm Foleo, a "Mobile Companion" device similar to a subnotebook computer, running a modified Linux kernal and relying on a companion Palm Treo smartphone to send and retrieve mail, as well as provide data connectivity when away from WiFi. Palm canceled Foleo development on September 4, 2007 after facing public criticism.
- * November – Open Handset Alliance is established, led by Google with 34 members
- * February – LiMo Foundation announces the first phones running the LiMo mobile Linux distribution, from Motorola, NEC, Panasonic Mobile, and Samsung, released later in the year. The LiMo Foundation later became the Tizen Association and LiMo was subsumed by Tizen.
- * June – Nokia becomes the sole owner of Symbian Ltd. The Symbian Foundation was then formed to co-ordinate the future development of the Symbian platform among the corporations using it, in a manner similar to the Open Handset Alliance with Android. Nokia remained the major contributor to Symbian's code.
- * July – Apple releases iPhone OS 2 with the iPhone 3G, making available Apple's App Store.
- * October – OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC Dream as the first Android phone.
- * November – Symbian^1, the Symbian Foundation's touch-specific S60-based platform is first released on Nokia's first touchscreen Symbian phone, the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, with a resistive screen and a stylus. Symbian^1 being derived from S60 meant that support for UIQ disappeared and no further devices using UIQ were released.
- * January
- ** Intel announces Moblin 2, specifically created for netbooks that run the company's Atom processor. In April 2009 Intel turned Moblin over to the Linux Foundation.
- ** Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre. The new OS is not backwards compatible with their previous Palm OS.
- * February
- ** Palm announces that no further devices with Palm OS are going to be released by the company.
- ** Microsoft announces Windows Mobile 6.5, an "unwanted stopgap" update to Windows Mobile 6.1 intended to bridge the gap between version 6.1 and the then yet-to-be released Windows Mobile 7. The first devices running it appeared in late October 2009.
- * May – DangerOS 5.0 becomes available, based on NetBSD.
- * June – Apple releases iPhone OS 3 with the iPhone 3GS.
- * November – Nokia releases the Nokia N900, its first and only smartphone running the Maemo OS intended for "handheld computers...with voice capability," while stating that they remain focused on Symbian S60 as their smartphone OS.
- * MeeGo is announced, a mobile Linux distribution merging Maemo from Nokia and Moblin from Intel and Linux Foundation, to be hosted by Linux Foundation. MeeGo is not backwards compatible with any previous operating system.
- * Samsung introduces the Bada OS and shows the first Bada smartphone, the Samsung S8500. It's later released in May 2010.
- * Apple releases the iPad with iPhone OS 3.2. This is the first version of the OS to support tablet computers. For its next major version iPhone OS will be renamed iOS.
- * HP acquires Palm in order to use webOS in multiple new products, including smartphones, tablets, and printers, later stating their intent to use it as the universal platform for all their devices.
- May – Microsoft Kin phone line with KIN OS become available.
- June – Apple releases iOS 4, renamed from iPhone OS, with the iPhone 4.
- July – Microsoft Kin phones and KIN OS are discontinued.
- * Apple releases a variant of iOS powering the new 2nd generation Apple TV.
- * Symbian^3 is first released on the Nokia N8. This would be Nokia's last flagship device running Symbian, before switching to Windows Phone 7 for future flagship phones.
- * The Danger Hiptop line and DangerOS are discontinued as a result of Microsoft's acquisition of Danger, Inc. in 2008.
- * Nokia assumes full control over Symbian as the Symbian Foundation disintegrates.
- * Windows Phone OS is released on Windows Phone 7 phones by HTC, LG, Samsung, and Dell. The new OS is not backwards compatible with the prior Windows Mobile OS.
- * Android 3.0, the first version to officially support tablet computers, is released on the Motorola Xoom.
- * Nokia abandons the Symbian OS and announces that it would use Microsoft's Windows Phone 7 as its primary smartphone platform, while Symbian would be gradually wound down.
- April – BlackBerry Tablet OS, based on QNX Neutrino is released on the BlackBerry PlayBook.
- * Mozilla announces their Boot to Gecko project to develop an OS for handheld devices emphasizing standards-based Web technologies, similar to webOS.
- * webOS 3.0, the first version to support tablet computers, is released on the HP TouchPad.
- August – HP announces that webOS device development and production lines would be halted. The last HP webOS version, 3.0.5, is released on January 12, 2012.
- * MeeGo is introduced with the limited-release Nokia N9, Nokia's first and only consumer device to use the OS.
- * After Nokia's abandonment of MeeGo, Intel and the Linux Foundation announce a partnership with Samsung to launch Tizen, shifting their focus from MeeGo and Bada during 2011 and 2012.
- * Apple releases iOS 5 with the iPhone 4S, integrating the Siri voice assistant.
- November – Fire OS, a fork of the Android operating system, is released by Amazon.com on the Kindle Fire tablet.
- May – Nokia releases the Nokia 808 PureView, later confirmed to be the last Symbian smartphone. This phone was followed by a single last Symbian software update, "Nokia Belle, Feature Pack 2," later in 2012.
- * Finnish start-up Jolla, formed by former Nokia employees, announces that MeeGo's community-driven successor Mer would be the basis of their new Sailfish smartphone OS.
- * Mozilla announces that the project formerly named Boot to Gecko is now Firefox OS and has several handset OEMs on board.
- August – Samsung announces they won't ship further phones using their Bada OS, instead focusing on Windows Phone 8 and Android.
- September – Apple releases iOS 6 with the iPhone 5.
- January – BlackBerry releases their new operating system for smartphones, BlackBerry 10, with their Q10 and Z10 smartphones. BlackBerry 10 is not backwards compatible with the BlackBerry OS used on their previous smartphones.
- February – HP sells webOS to LG.
- September – Apple releases iOS 7 with the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C.
- * Canonical announces Ubuntu Touch, a version of the Linux distribution expressly designed for smartphones. The OS is built on the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android.
- * Google releases Android KitKat 4.4.
- November – Jolla releases Sailfish OS on the Jolla smartphone.
- * Microsoft releases Windows Phone 8.1
- * Nokia introduces their Nokia X platform OS as an Android 4.1.2 Jelly Bean fork on the Nokia X family of smartphones. Similar to Amazon.com's Fire OS, it replaces Google's apps and services with ones from Nokia and Microsoft, with a user interface that mimics the Windows Phone UI. After the acquisition of Nokia's devices unit, Microsoft announced in July 2014 that no more Nokia X smartphones would be introduced, marking the end of the platform just a few months later.
- August – The Samsung SM-Z9005 Z is the first phone released running Tizen, with v2.2.1 of the OS.
- * Apple releases iOS 8 with the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus.
- * BlackBerry releases BlackBerry 10 version 10.3 with integration with the Amazon Appstore
- November – Google releases Android 5.0 "Lollipop"
- February – Google releases Android 5.1 "Lollipop".
- * LG releases the LG Watch Urbane LTE smartwatch running "LG Wearable Platform OS" based on webOS. This is a version of their Android Wear OS-based LG Watch Urbane, with added LTE connectivity.
- * watchOS, based on iOS, is released by Apple with the Apple Watch.
- * Apple releases iOS 9 with the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, iPad Pro, and iPad Mini 4, plus watchOS 2. tvOS 9 is also made distinct from iOS, with its own App Store, launching with Apple TV 4th generation.
- * Google releases Android 6.0 "Marshmallow".
- October – BlackBerry announces that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, and future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only.
- November – Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile.
- February – Microsoft releases the Lumia 650, their last Windows 10 Mobile phone before discontinuing all mobile hardware production the following year.
- July – The BlackBerry Classic, the last device to date running a BlackBerry OS is discontinued. While BlackBerry Limited claimed to still be committed to the BlackBerry 10 operating system, they have since only shipped Android devices after releasing the BlackBerry Priv, their first Android smartphone in November 2015.
- * Google posts the Fuchsia source code on GitHub.
- * Google releases Android 7.0 "Nougat".
- September – Apple releases iOS 10 with the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, and watchOS 3 with the Apple Watch Series 1 and 2.
- * Tizen releases Tizen 3.0.
- * BlackBerry releases BlackBerry 10 version 10.3.3.
- April – Samsung officially launches Android-based Samsung Experience custom firmware starting with version 8.1 on Samsung Galaxy S8.
- May – Samsung announces Tizen 4.0 at Tizen Developer Conference 2017.
- August – Google releases Android 8.0 "Oreo".
- September – Apple releases iOS 11 with the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus and iPhone X, and watchOS 4 with the Apple Watch Series 3.
- October – Microsoft announces that Windows 10 Mobile development is going into maintenance mode only, ending the release of any new features or functionality due to lack of market penetration and resultant lack of interest from app developers, and releases the final major update to it, the "Fall Creators Update."
- *Samsung releases Samsung Experience 9.0 based on Android "Oreo" 8.0 globally to Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+.
- * Google and partners officially launches Android Go with Nokia 1, Alcatel 1X, ZTE Tempo Go, General Mobile 8 Go, Micromax Bharat Go and Lava Z50.
- * Google releases Android "9" as a developer preview.
- *Microsoft release Windows 10 Version 1803 "April 2018 Update".
- *Huawei release LiteOS version 2.1.
- * Google releases Android 9.0 "Pie".
- * UBPorts released Ubuntu Touch OTA-14, upgrading the OS based on the Canonical's long-term support version of Ubuntu 16.04 LTS "Xenial Xerus".
- * Xiaomi officially introduces MIUI for POCO for their Poco series smartphone.
- * Samsung officially introduces Tizen 4.0 with the release of Samsung Galaxy Watch series.
- * Apple releases iOS 12 with the iPhone XS and XS Max, and watchOS 5 with Apple Watch Series 4.
- * Huawei releases EMUI 9.0.
- *Microsoft releases Windows 10 Version 1809 "October 2018 Update".
- *Samsung announces the One UI as the latest version of the Samsung Experience UI.
- *Amazon released Fire OS 6 to supported Fire HD devices.
- * Microsoft announces that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, and that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones.
- *Apple announces iOS 13, watchOS 6, and iPadOS as a distinct variant of iOS.
- * Huawei announced the EMUI 10 under beta release.
- * Apple releases iOS 13 with the iPhone 11 series, watchOS 6 with Apple Watch Series 5, and iPadOS with the 7th generation iPad.
- * Google releases Android 10.
- * The Librem 5, the first phone running [|PureOS], is released.
- * Samsung announces the One UI 2.0 as the latest version of their Galaxy Smartphone and Smartwatch UI.
- * Microsoft release the Windows November 10, 2019 Update.
Current software platforms
Partly open source
Androidis a mobile operating system developed by Google. The base system is open-source, but the apps and drivers which provide functionality are increasingly becoming closed-source. Besides having the largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, it is also the most popular operating system for general purpose computers, even though Android is not a popular operating system for regular personal computers. Although the Android operating system is free and open-source software, in devices sold, much of the software bundled with it is proprietary software and closed source.
Android's releases before 2.0 were used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were mostly used for mobile phones but also some tablets, Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on mobile phones, while both phone and tablet compatibility was merged with Android 4.0. The current Android version is Android 10, released on September 3, 2019.
Visit this link to explore various android best smartphones on
Android's release versions starting from 1.5 and until 9 are named after sweets or dessert items:
- 1.0 –
- 1.1 –
- 1.5 – Cupcake:
- 1.6 – Donut:
- 2.0 – Eclair:
- 2.0.1 – Eclair:
- 2.1 – Eclair:
- 2.2.x – Froyo: :
- 2.3 – Gingerbread: :
- 2.3.3 – Gingerbread:
- 3.0 – Honeycomb: :
- 3.1 – Honeycomb:
- 3.2 – Honeycomb:
- 4.0 – Ice Cream Sandwich: :
- 4.0.3 – Ice Cream Sandwich:
- 4.1 – Jelly Bean:
- 4.2 – Jelly Bean:
- 4.3 – Jelly Bean:
- 4.4.4 – KitKat:
- 4.4W – KitKat Watch:
- 5.0, 5.0.1, 5.0.2 – Lollipop: :
- 5.1, 5.1.1 – Lollipop:
- 6.0 & 6.0.1 – Marshmallow:
- 7.0 – Nougat:
- 7.1, 7.1.1 – Nougat:
- 8.1 – Oreo:
- 9.0 – Pie: :
- 10.0 – 10:
- Android One version are same as AOSP, starting from Android 5.0 "Lollipop"
Amazfit OS / Amazfit UIAmazfit OS is an Android-based operating system developed by Huami for their smartwatches. Amazfit OS is not based on Wear OS, it is a custom Android-based OS that dedicated for their smartwatch with their proprietary interface and they do not officially support third apps installation as they lack of proper Apps distribution store.
BlackBerry SecureBlackBerry Secure is an operating system developed by BlackBerry, based on the Android Open Source Project. Officially announced the name for their Android based front-end touch interface in August 2017, before the announcement, BlackBerry Secure was running on BlackBerry brand devices such as BlackBerry Priv, DTEK 50/60 and BlackBerry KeyOne. Currently, BlackBerry plan to license out the BlackBerry Secure to other OEM's.
- BlackBerry Secure version 1.x
- ColorOS 1.0
- ColorOS 2.0
- ColorOS 2.1
- ColorOS 3.0
- ColorOS 3.5
EMUIis a front-end touch interface developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and is based on Google's Android Open Source Project. EMUI is preinstalled on most Huawei and Honor devices. While it was based on open source Android operating system, it consists of closed source and proprietary software.
- EMUI 1.x
- EMUI 2.x
- EMUI 3.x
- EMUI 4.x
- EMUI 5.x
- EMUI 8.x
- EMUI 9.x
- EMUI 10.x (based on Android "10" 10.x
- /e/ OS beta v0.1
- /e/ OS beta v0.2
- Fire OS 1.x
- Fire OS 2.x
- Fire OS 3.x
- Fire OS 4.x
- Fire OS 5.x
- Fire OS 6.x
- Fire OS 7.x
- Flyme OS 1.x.x
- Flyme OS 2.x.x
- Flyme OS 3.x.x
- Flyme OS 4.x.x
- Flyme OS 5.x.x
- Flyme OS 6.x.x
- Funtouch OS 1.x
- Funtouch OS 2.x
- Funtouch OS 3.x
- Funtouch OS 4.x
- Funtouch OS 5.x
HTC Senseis a software suite developed by HTC, used primarily on the company's Android-based devices. Serving as a successor to HTC's TouchFLO 3D software for Windows Mobile, Sense modifies many aspects of the Android user experience, incorporating added features, widgets, HTC-developed applications, and redesigned applications. The first device with Sense, the HTC Hero, was released in 2009.
- HTC Sense 1.x
- HTC Sense 2.x
- HTC Sense 3.x
- HTC Sense 4.x
- HTC Sense 5.x
- HTC Sense 6.x
- HTC Sense 7.x
- HTC Sense 8.x
- iQOO UI 1.x - Based on Funtouch OS
- Firstouch OS
- Indus OS 2.0
- Indus OS 3.0
Optimus UI 2 which based on Android 4.1.2 has been released on the Optimus K II and the Optimus Neo 3. It features a more refined user interface compared to the prior version based on Android 4.1.1, would include together which new functionality such as voice shutter and quick memo.
- Optimus UI 1.x – based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, initial release
- Optimus UI 2.x – based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" and "Jelly Bean" 4.0.x and 4.1.x – 4.3.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 3.x – based on Android "KitKat" and "Lollipop" 4.4.x and 5.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 4.x – based on Android "Lollipop" and "Marshmallow" 5.1.x and 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 5.x – based on Android "Marshmallow" and "Nougat" 6.0.x and 7.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 6.x – based on Android "Nougat" 7.0.x, redesigned UI
- LG UX 6.x+ – based on Android "Oreo" 8.0.x, redesigned UI
Similar to CyanogenMod, it does not include any proprietary apps unless the user installs them. It allows Android users who can no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official release from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization.
- LineageOS 13
- LineageOS 14.1
- LineageOS 15.x
- LineageOS 16.x
- Magic Live UI - based on Android 6.x "Marshmallow", initial release
- Magic UI 2.x - based on Android 9.x "Pie", redesign UI
- Magic UI 3.x - based on Android 10.x "10", redesign UI
- MiFavor 1.x – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x, initial release
- MiFavor 2.x – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 3.x – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 4.x – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- MiFavor 5.x – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
Visit here for Mi smartphones -
- MIUI V1 – based on Android "Froyo" 2.2.x, initial release
- MIUI V2 – based on Android "Froyo" 2.2.x, redesigned UI
- MIUI V3 – based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, redesigned UI
- MIUI V4 – based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" 4.0.x and "Jelly Bean" 4.1.x, redesigned UI
- MIUI V5 – based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.1–4.3 and "KitKat" 4.4, redesigned UI
- MIUI V6 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4 and "Lollipop" 5.0.x, redesigned UI
- MIUI 7 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4, "Lollipop" 5.x and "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, minor UI update
- MIUI 8 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4, "Lollipop" 5.x, "Marshmallow" 6.0.x and "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- MIUI 9 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4, "Lollipop" 5.x, "Marshmallow " 6.0.x, "Nougat" 7.x and "Oreo" 8.x, minor UI update
- MIUI 10 – based on Android "Marshmallow " 6.0.x, "Nougat" 7.x, "Oreo" 8.x and "Pie" 9.0, redesigned UI
- MIUI 11 – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, "Oreo" 8.x, "Pie" 9.0 and "10" 10.0, redesigned UI
- MIUI 12 – based on Android "Pie" 9.0 and "10" 10.0, redesigned UI
MIUI for POCO
- MIUI for POCO "9.6.14" – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, initial release
- TouchWiz 3.0 & 3.0 Lite – based on Android "Eclair" and "Froyo" 2.0/2.1 and 2.2.x, initial release
- TouchWiz 4.0 – based on Android "Gingerbread" and "Ice Cream Sandwich" 2.3.x and 4.0.x, redesigned UI
- TouchWiz Nature UX "1.0" and Lite – based on Android "Ice Cream Sandwich" and "Jelly Bean" 4.0.x and 4.1.x, redesigned UI
- TouchWiz Nature UX 2.x – based on Android "Jelly Bean" and "KitKat" 4.2.x – 4.3.x and 4.4.x, redesigned UI
- TouchWiz Nature UX 3.x – based on Android "KitKat" and "Lollipop" 4.4.x and 5.0.x, redesigned UI
- TouchWiz Nature UX 5.x – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- TouchWiz Grace UX – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- Samsung Experience 8.x – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- Samsung Experience 9.x – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
- One UI 1.x – based on Android "Pie" 9.0, major UI update
- One UI 2.x – based on Android "10" 10.0, redesigned UI
- Oxygen OS 1.0.x
- Oxygen OS 2.0.x
- Oxygen OS 3.0.x
- Oxygen OS 3.1.x
- Oxygen OS 3.2.x
- Oxygen OS 4.x.x
- Oxygen OS 5.x.x
Pixel UI (Pixel Launcher)
- Pixel Launcher – "7.1.1"
- Pixel Launcher – "8.1.0"
- Pixel Launcher – "9.0"
- Pixel Launcher – "10.0"
- realme UI 1.x - Based on ColorOS 7.0 - Android 10 - Initial Release
- ReplicantOS 2.x
- ReplicantOS 4.x
- ReplicantOS 4.2
- ReplicantOS 6.x
- TCL UI 1.x - Based on Android 9 "Pie and Android 10 - Initial Release
- Timescape version 1 – based on Android "Eclair" 2.0/2.1, initial release
- Timescape version 2 – based on Android "Gingerbread" 2.3.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 3 – based on Android "Gingerbread" and "Ice Cream Sandwich" 2.3.x and 4.0.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 4 – based on Android "Jelly Bean" 4.2.x – 4.3.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 5 – based on Android "KitKat" 4.4.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 6 – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 7 – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 8 – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- Xperia UI version 9 – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 1.0 – based on Android "Jelly Bean" and "KitKat" 4.3.x and 4.4.x, initial release
- ZenUI 2.0 – based on Android "Lollipop" 5.0.x – 5.1.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 3.0 – based on Android "Marshmallow" 6.0.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 4.0 – based on Android "Nougat" 7.x, redesigned UI
- ZenUI 5.0 – based on Android "Oreo" 8.x, redesigned UI
Due to increase of popularity with 2-in-1 PCs, most recent Chromebooks are introduced with touch screen capability, with Android applications starting to become available for the operating system in 2014. And in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. With the support of Android applications, there are Chromebook devices that are positioned as tablet based instead of notebooks.
Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description.
Sailfish OSis from Jolla. It is open source with GNU General Public License for middleware stack core which comes from MER. Sailfish due to Jolla's business model and due to alliances with various partners and due to intentional design of OS internals, is capable to adopt in several layers third party software including Jolla software e.g. Jolla's UI is proprietary software, so such components can be proprietary with many different kinds of licences. However, user can replace them with open source components like e.g. NEMO UI instead Jolla's UI.
After Nokia abandoned in 2011 the MeeGo project, most of the MeeGo team left Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo and Mer business opportunities. The MER standard allows it to be launched on any hardware with kernel compatible with MER. In 2012, Linux Sailfish OS based on MeeGo and using middleware of MER core stack distribution was launched for public use. The first device, the Jolla smartphone, was unveiled on May 20, 2013. In 2015, Jolla Tablet was launched and the BRICS countries declared it an officially supported OS there. Jolla started licensing Sailfish OS 2.0 for third parties. Some devices sold are updateable to Sailfish 2.0 with no limits.
Nemo Mobile is a community-driven OS, similar to Sailfish but attempting to replace its proprietary components, such as the user interface.
Each Sailfish OS version release is named after a Finnish lake:
|188.8.131.52||17||Eineheminlampi||Pretransition to version 2.0; major UI revamp.|
|184.108.40.206||18||Saimaa||Full transition to version 2.0; minor UI and function improvements.|
|220.127.116.11||27||4 October 2017||Kymijoki||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|18.104.22.168||6 October 2017||Cbeta release. Xperia X only.|
|22.214.171.124||11 October 2017||Public release of Sailfish X. Xperia X only.|
|126.96.36.199||31 October 2017||Early access release.|
|188.8.131.52||13 November 2017||Public release.|
|184.108.40.206||28||20 February 2018||Lapuanjoki||Early access release.|
|220.127.116.11||28 February 2018||Early access release.|
|18.104.22.168||6 March 2018||Public release.|
|22.214.171.124||29||31 March 2018||Mouhijoki||Early access release.|
|126.96.36.199||7 June 2018||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||30||4 September 2018||Nurmonjoki||Early access release.|
|184.108.40.206||12 September 2018||Public release.|
|220.127.116.11||31||31 October 2018||Lemmenjoki||Early access release. Introduction of the Sailfish OS 3.0 GUI. Includes changes from planned 2.2.2 release.|
|18.104.22.168||11 November 2018||Public release.|
|22.214.171.124||32||7 January 2019||Sipoonkorpi||Early access release.|
|126.96.36.199||16 January 2019||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||31 January 2019||Beta release. Xperia XA2 only.|
|184.108.40.206||33||18 March 2019||Oulanka||Early access release.|
|220.127.116.11||25 March 2019||Public release.|
|18.104.22.168||34||24 April 2019||Hossa||Early access release.|
|22.214.171.124||7 May 2019||Public release.|
|126.96.36.199||29 May 2019||Public release.|
|188.8.131.52||35||18 July 2019||Seitseminen||Early access release.|
Tizenis a mobile operating system hosted by Linux Foundation, together with support from the Tizen Association, guided by a Technical Steering Group composed of Intel and Samsung.
Tizen is an operating system for devices including smartphones, tablets, In-Vehicle Infotainment devices, however currently it mainly focus on wearable and smart TVs. It is an open source system that aims to offer a consistent user experience across devices. Tizen's main components are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. According to Intel, Tizen "combines the best of LiMo and MeeGo." HTML5 apps are emphasized, with MeeGo encouraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that the "future belongs to HTML5-based applications, outside of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are firmly convinced that our investment needs to shift toward HTML5." Tizen will be targeted at a variety of platforms such as handsets, touch pc, smart TVs and in-vehicle entertainment. On May 17, 2013, Tizen released version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.
While Tizen itself was open source, most of the UX and UI layer that developed by Samsung was mainly closed source and proprietary, such as the TouchWiz UI on the Samsung Z's series smartphone and One UI for their Galaxy Watch wearable lines.
Current Tizen version list:
- Tizen – 1.0
- Tizen – 2.0
- Tizen – 2.1
- Tizen – 2.2.x
- Tizen – 2.3.x
- Tizen – 2.4.x
- Tizen – RT 1.0
- Tizen – 3.0
- Tizen – 4.0
- Tizen – 5.0
It is a mix of closed-source and open-source components. FirefoxOS/B2G was released under the permissive MPL 2.0. It does not redistribute itself under the same license, so KaiOS is now presumably proprietary. KaiOS is not entirely proprietary, as it uses the copyleft GPL Linux kernel also used in Android.
Fully open-source, entirely permissive licenses
Fuchsiais a capability-based, real-time operating system currently being developed by Google. It was first discovered as a mysterious code post on GitHub in August 2016, without any official announcement. In contrast to prior Google-developed operating systems such as Chrome OS and Android, which are based on Linux kernels, Fuchsia is based on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel", a small operating system intended for embedded systems. This allows it to remove Linux and the copyleft GPL underwhich the Linux kernel is licensed; Fuchsia is licensed under the permissive BSD 3-clause, Apache 2.0, and MIT licenses. Upon inspection, media outlets noted that the code post on GitHub suggested Fuchsia's capability to run on universal devices, from embedded systems to smartphones, tablets and personal computers. In May 2017, Fuchsia was updated with a user interface, along with a developer writing that the project was not a for experimental, prompting media speculation about Google's intentions with the operating system, including the possibility of it replacing Android.
LiteOSis a lightweight open source real-time operating system which is part of Huawei's "1+2+1" Internet of Things solution, which is similar to Google Android Things and Samsung Tizen. It is released under the permissive BSD 3-clause license. Huawei LiteOS features lightweight, low-power, fast-response, multi-sensor collaboration, multi-protocol interconnect connectivity, enabling IoT terminals to quickly access the network. Huawei LiteOS will make intelligent hardware development easier. Thereby accelerating the realization of the interconnection of all things. Currently LiteOS are introduce to the consumer market with the Huawei Watch GT series and their sub-brand Honor Magic Watch series.
Current LiteOS version list:
- LiteOS V2.1 – released in May 2018
Fully open-source, mixed copyleft and permissive licenses
PureOSis a Debian GNU/Linux derivative using only free software meeting the Debian Free Software Guidelines, mainly the copyleft GPL. PureOS is endorsed by Free Software Foundation as one of the freedom-respecting operating systems. It is developed by Purism, and was already in use on Purism's laptops before it was used on the Librem 5 smartphone. Purism, in partnership with GNOME and KDE, aims to separate the CPU from the baseband processor and include hardware kill switches for the phone's Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, camera, microphone and baseband processor, and provide both GNOME and KDE Plasma Mobile as options for the desktop environment.
Ubuntu Touchis from Canonical Ltd.. It is open source and uses the GPL license. Ubuntu Touch as an OS is built using the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services via an LXC container, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android., the desktop environment of Ubuntu Touch is planned to be available as one of the default desktop options on the Librem 5 running PureOS as the operating system.
Though Canonical formally announced it was discontinuing the Ubuntu mobile OS with its integral component Unity8, the independent German non-profit UBPorts Community/ decided to take over the project. Canonical started Ubuntu Touch based on Ubuntu 15.04 and UBPorts upgraded the base to the nearest, current long-term support version Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
Original Canonical Ubuntu Touch version list:
- Preview Version
- OTA 2.x
- OTA 3.x
- OTA 4.x
- OTA 5.x
- OTA 6.x
- OTA 7.x
- OTA 8.x
- OTA 9.x
- OTA 10.x
- OTA 11.x
- OTA 12.x
- OTA 13.x
- OTA 14.x
- OTA 15.x
- 15.04 OTA-1
- 15.04 OTA-2
- 15.04 OTA-3
- 16.04 OTA-4
- 16.04 OTA-5
- 16.04 OTA-6
The Necuno phone uses Plasma Mobile. It is which is entirely open-source and thus does not have a cellular modem, so it must make calls by VOIP, like a pocket computer.
PostmarketOSis based on the Alpine Linux Linux distribution. It is intended to run on older phone hardware. it is in alpha.
LuneOSis a modern reimplementation of the Palm/HP webOS interface.
iOSwas created by Apple Inc. It has the second largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, but the largest profits, due to aggressive price competition between Android-based manufacturers. It is closed source and proprietary, and is built on the open source Darwin operating system. The iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and second or third-generation Apple TV all use iOS, which is derived from macOS.
Native third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iPhone OS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed. In recent years, the jailbreaking scene has changed drastically due to Apple's continued efforts to secure their operating system and prevent unauthorized modifications. Currently, jailbreaks of recent iterations of iOS are only semi-untethered, which requires a device to be re-jailbroken at every boot, and exploits for jailbreaks are becoming increasingly hard to find and use.
Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.
Current iOS version list
- iPhone OS 1.x
- iPhone OS 2.x
- iPhone OS 3.x
- iOS 4.x
- iOS 5.x
- iOS 6.x
- iOS 7.x
- iOS 8.x
- iOS 9.x
- iOS 10.x
- iOS 11.x
- iOS 12.x
- iOS 13.x
Current iPadOS version list
- iPadOS 13.x
The most current version of the watchOS operating system is watchOS 6.
Kindle firmwareKindle firmware is mobile operating system specifically design for Amazon Amazon Kindle e-readers, it is based on custom Linux kernel however it is entirely closed source and proprietary, and only runs on Amazon Kindle line up manufactured under Amazon brand.
Windows 10is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released on July 29, 2015. Just like its predecessors, it was designed to run across multiple Microsoft product such as PCs and Tablets. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices—particularly on 2-in-1 PCs.
Windows 10 also introduces the universal apps, expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code—including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality.
Current Windows 10 version list:
- Windows 10 – Version 1507 "10.0.10240.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1511 "10.0.10586.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1607 "10.0.14393.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1703 "10.0.15063.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1709 "10.0.16299.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1803 "10.0.17134.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1809 "10.0.17763.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1903 "10.0.18362.x"
- Windows 10 – Version 1909 "10.0.18363.x"
Minor proprietary operating system
- Proprietary Amazfit OS
- Huawei/Honor Band Operating System
- realme Wearable Operating System
- TCL Wearable Real Time Operating System
- Xiaomi Mi Band Operating System
Under maintenance only
BlackBerry 10is from BlackBerry. As a smartphone OS, it is closed source and proprietary, and only runs on phones and tablets manufactured by BlackBerry.
One of the dominant platforms in the world in late 2000s, its global market share was reduced significantly by mid-2010s. In late 2016, BlackBerry announced that it will continue to support the OS, with a promise to release 10.3.3. Therefore, BlackBerry 10 would not receive any major updates as BlackBerry and its partners would focus more on their Android base development.
Current BlackBerry 10 version list:
- BlackBerry 10.0
- BlackBerry 10.1
- BlackBerry 10.2
- BlackBerry 10.3 – major UI revamp
- BlackBerry 10.3.3
Discontinued software platforms
CyanogenModCyanogenMod was a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project. It was a custom ROM that was co-developed by the CyanogenMod community. The OS did not include any proprietary apps unless the user installed them. Due to its open source nature, CyanogenMod allowed Android users who could no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official releases from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization. The last version of the OS was CyanogenMod 13 which was based on Android Asus
On December 24, 2016, CyanogenMod announced on their blog that they would no longer be releasing any CyanogenMod updates. All development moved to LineageOS.
- CyanogenMod 3
- CyanogenMod 4
- CyanogenMod 5
- CyanogenMod 6
- CyanogenMod 7
- CyanogenMod 9
- CyanogenMod 10
- CyanogenMod 11
- CyanogenMod 12
- CyanogenMod 13
- CyanogenMod 14
- Cyanogen OS 11s
- Cyanogen OS 12
- Cyanogen OS 12.1
- Cyanogen OS 13
According to Ars Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems." In September 2016, Mozilla announced that work on Firefox OS has ceased, and all B2G-related code would be removed from mozilla-central.
MeeGo/Maemo/Moblinwas from non-profit organization The Linux Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both unveiled MeeGo, a mobile operating system that combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia announced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in favor of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on June 21, 2011 at the Nokia Connection event in Singapore. LG announced its support for the platform. Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open source and GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its graphical user interface, frameworks, and libraries from the GNOME project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTK-based Hildon as its GUI and application framework.
webOSwas developed by Palm. webOS is an open source mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones and a tablet running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware would be discontinued, but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of webOS to LG Electronics, who used the operating system for its "smart" or Internet-connected TVs. However, HP retained patents underlying WebOS and cloud-based services such as the App Catalog.
BlackBerry OSIn 1999, Research In Motion released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. In early 2010s, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its company name to BlackBerry Limited and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10".
SymbianThe Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for some models of smartphones. It is proprietary software, it was however used by Ericsson, Sending and Benq. The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although a slimmed-down version for basic phones was still developed until July 2014. Microsoft officially shelved the platform in favor of Windows Phone after its acquisition of Nokia.
Badaplatform was an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It was developed by Samsung Electronics. Its name is derived from "바다 ", meaning "ocean" or "sea" in Korean. It ranges from mid- to high-end smartphones. To foster adoption of Bada OS, since 2011 Samsung reportedly has considered releasing the source code under an open-source license, and expanding device support to include Smart TVs. Samsung announced in June 2012 intentions to merge Bada into the Tizen project, but would meanwhile use its own Bada operating system, in parallel with Google Android OS and Microsoft Windows Phone, for its smartphones. All Bada-powered devices are branded under the Wave name, but not all of Samsung's Android-powered devices are branded under the name Galaxy.
On February 25, 2013, Samsung announced that it will stop developing Bada, moving development to Tizen instead. Bug reporting was finally terminated in April 2014.
Palm OS/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed source and proprietary. webOS was introduced by Palm in January 2009, as the successor to Palm OS with Web 2.0 technologies, open architecture and multitasking abilities.
Windows Mobileis a family of proprietary operating systems from Microsoft aimed at business and enterprise users, based on Windows CE and originally developed for Pocket PC devices. In 2010 it was replaced with the consumer-focused Windows Phone.
Versions of Windows Mobile came in multiple editions, like "Pocket PC Premium," "Pocket PC Professional," "Pocket PC Phone," and "Smartphone" or "Professional," "Standard," and "Classic". Some editions were touchscreen-only and some were keyboard-only, although there were cases where device vendors managed to graft support for one onto an edition targeted at the other. Cellular phone features were also only supported by some editions. Microsoft started work on a version of Windows Mobile that would combine all features together, but it was aborted, and instead they focused on developing the non-backwards-compatible, touchscreen-only Windows Phone 7.
Windows Phoneis a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone features a new touchscreen-oriented user interface derived from Metro design language. Windows Phone was replaced by Windows 10 Mobile in 2015.
Windows 10 Mobileis from Microsoft. It is closed source and proprietary.
Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices were made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.
On January 21, 2015, Microsoft announced that the Windows Phone brand will be phased out and replaced with Windows 10 Mobile, bringing tighter integration and unification with its PC counterpart Windows 10, and provide a platform for smartphones and tablets with screen sizes under 8 inches.
On October 8, 2017, Microsoft officially announced that they would no longer push any major updates to Windows 10 Mobile, instead it would put it in maintenance mode, where Microsoft would push bug fixes and general improvements only, therefore Windows 10 Mobile would not receive any new feature updates.
On January 18, 2019, Microsoft announced that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, with no further security updates released after then, and that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones.
Current Windows 10 Mobile version list:
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1511 – major UI update
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1607
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1703
- Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1709
UsageIn 2006, Android and iOS did not exist and only 64 million smartphones were sold. In 2018 Q1, 383.5 million smartphones were sold and global market share was 85.9% for Android and 14.1% for iOS.
According to StatCounter web use statistics, smartphones have majority use globally, with desktop computers used much less. Use varies however by continent with smartphones way more popular in the biggest continents, i.e. Asia, and the desktop still more popular in some, though not in North America.
The desktop is still popular in many countries, smartphones are more popular even in many developed countries. A few countries on any continent are desktop-minority; European countries are smartphone-majority, Poland and Turkey highest with 57.68% and 62.33%, respectively. In Ireland, smartphone use at 45.55% outnumbers desktop use and mobile as a whole gains majority when including the tablet share at 9.12%. Spain is also slightly desktop-minority.
The range of measured mobile web use varies a lot by country, and a StatCounter press release recognizes "India amongst world leaders in use of mobile to surf the internet" where the share is around 80% and desktop is at 19.56%, with Russia trailing with 17.8% mobile use.
Smartphones, first gained majority in December 2016, and it wasn't a Christmas-time fluke, as while close to majority after smartphone majority happened again in March 2017.
In the week from November 7–13, 2016, smartphones alone overtook desktop, for the first time. Mobile-majority applies to countries such as Paraguay in South America, Poland in Europe and Turkey; and most of Asia and Africa. Some of the world is still desktop-majority, with e.g. in the United States at 54.89%. However, in some territories of the United States, such as Puerto Rico, desktop is way under majority, with Windows under 30% overtaken by Android.
On October 22, 2016, mobile showed majority. Since October 27, the desktop hasn't shown majority, not even on weekdays. And smartphones alone have showed majority since December 23 to the end of the year, with the share topping at 58.22% on Christmas Day. To the "mobile"-majority share then of smartphones, tablets could be added giving a 63.22% majority. While an unusually high top, a similarly high also happened on Monday April 17, 2017, with then only smartphones share slightly lower and tablet share slightly higher, with them combined at 62.88%.
Formerly, according to StatCounter press release, the world has turned desktop-minority; as of 2016, at about 49% desktop use for that month, but mobile wasn't ranked higher, tablet share had to be added to it to exceed desktop share.
By operating systemNote:
- Windows includes all versions.
- BlackBerry includes all versions.
- Other includes all other smartphone OSes but not feature phone OSes.
|Quarter||Android||iOS||KaiOS||Windows||BlackBerry||Symbian||Other||Total smartphones||Total phones|