Mobile operating system

A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, smart speaker or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are 'mobile', the operating systems usually used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were originally designed for desktop computers that historically did not have or need specific mobile features. This distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses.
Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use,and usually including a wireless inbuilt modem and SIM tray for telephony and data connection. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Microsoft Windows, and in general smartphone use outnumbers desktop use.
Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systemsthe main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017 ; with even only the smartphones running them more used than any other kind of device. Thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS; see usage share of operating systems. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority also applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom.


Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones, PDAs, and smartphones:



These operating systems often run atop baseband or other real time operating systems that handle hardware aspects of the phone.

Partly open source


is a mobile operating system developed by Google. The base system is open-source, but the apps and drivers which provide functionality are increasingly becoming closed-source. Besides having the largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, it is also the most popular operating system for general purpose computers, even though Android is not a popular operating system for regular personal computers. Although the Android operating system is free and open-source software, in devices sold, much of the software bundled with it is proprietary software and closed source.
Android's releases before 2.0 were used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were mostly used for mobile phones but also some tablets, Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on mobile phones, while both phone and tablet compatibility was merged with Android 4.0. The current Android version is Android 10, released on September 3, 2019.
Visit this link to explore various android best smartphones on
Android's release versions starting from 1.5 and until 9 are named after sweets or dessert items:
is a software experience that runs on the unmodified Android operating system, which closely resembles those running on Pixel devices or previously, the Google Nexus program. Unlike most of the "stock" Androids running on the market, Android One UI closely resembles the Pixel UI, due to Android One being a software experience developed by Google and distributed to partners who signup for the program, such as Nokia Mobile and Xiaomi. Thus, the overall UI is intended to be as clean as possible. OEM partners may tweak or add additional apps such as cameras to the firmware, otherwise most of the apps will be handled by Google proprietary apps. The update was handled by Google and will be internally tested by OEM before being distributed via OTA update to the end users.
Designed by Alibaba, based on Android.
Amazfit OS / Amazfit UI
Amazfit OS is an Android-based operating system developed by Huami for their smartwatches. Amazfit OS is not based on Wear OS, it is a custom Android-based OS that dedicated for their smartwatch with their proprietary interface and they do not officially support third apps installation as they lack of proper Apps distribution store.
BlackBerry Secure
BlackBerry Secure is an operating system developed by BlackBerry, based on the Android Open Source Project. Officially announced the name for their Android based front-end touch interface in August 2017, before the announcement, BlackBerry Secure was running on BlackBerry brand devices such as BlackBerry Priv, DTEK 50/60 and BlackBerry KeyOne. Currently, BlackBerry plan to license out the BlackBerry Secure to other OEM's.
is a custom front-end touch interface, based on the Android Open Source Project and is developed by OPPO Electronics Corp., OPPO officially releases ColorOS with every OPPO and Realme devices, and released an official ROM for the OnePlus One.
, a security hardened version of Android
is a front-end touch interface developed by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and is based on Google's Android Open Source Project. EMUI is preinstalled on most Huawei and Honor devices. While it was based on open source Android operating system, it consists of closed source and proprietary software.
is an operating system forked from the source code of LineageOS. /e/ targets Android smart phone devices, and uses MicroG as a replacement for Google Play Services.
is an Android-based mobile operating system produced by Amazon for its Fire range of tablets, Echo and Echo Dot, and other content delivery devices like Fire TV. It is forked from Android. Fire OS primarily centers on content consumption, with a customized user interface and heavy ties to content available from Amazon's own storefronts and services.
is an operating system developed by Meizu Technology Co., Ltd., an open source OS based on Google Android Open Source Project. Flyme OS is mainly installed on Meizu Smartphones such as the MX's series; however, it also has official ROM support for a few Android devices.
is a fork of an Android developed by Vivo. Funtouch OS is difference than traditional Android UI that the Funtouch OS includes some features unavailable in the former, such as:- customizable gestures, communication drawer with bottom to top swipe, a security centre, lock screen resize, options for long screen shot, eye protection changing to a warmer color temperature and others. Funtouch OS, in some respects, looks similar to iOS made by Apple.
, formerly named Android Hardening, is a variant of Android that runs on Pixel 2 or Pixel 3 hardware, is mainly developed by Daniel Micay as of 2019, and aims to focus on security and privacy.
HTC Sense
is a software suite developed by HTC, used primarily on the company's Android-based devices. Serving as a successor to HTC's TouchFLO 3D software for Windows Mobile, Sense modifies many aspects of the Android user experience, incorporating added features, widgets, HTC-developed applications, and redesigned applications. The first device with Sense, the HTC Hero, was released in 2009.
iQOO UI is a customer user interface that is based on Vivo Funtouch OS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project. The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI on top of the Funtouch OS.
is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project. It is developed by the Indus OS team based in India. No longer valid as of 2018Indus OS is available on Micromax, Intex, Karbonn, and other Indian smartphone brands.
is a front-end touch interface developed by LG Electronics with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an operating system. LG UX is used internally by LG for sophisticated feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties.
Optimus UI 2 which based on Android 4.1.2 has been released on the Optimus K II and the Optimus Neo 3. It features a more refined user interface compared to the prior version based on Android 4.1.1, would include together which new functionality such as voice shutter and quick memo.
is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project. It serves as the successor to the highly popular custom ROM, CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project. Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.
Similar to CyanogenMod, it does not include any proprietary apps unless the user installs them. It allows Android users who can no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official release from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization.
Magic UI, it's a custom Android UI that is developed by Huawei sub-brand Honor for their own smartphone brand. The overall UI design were identical to Huawei EMUI with some minor differences such as the apps icons and color backgrounds.
MiFavor, was the custom Android UI that was developed by ZTE for their smartphone that is running Android platform. Similar to most of the other Android UI, MiFavor replace most of the stock apps with ZTE owns apps, however the all UX still closely similar to the stock Android.
, developed by the Chinese electronic company Xiaomi Inc., is a mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project. MIUI is mostly found in Xiaomi smartphones such as the Mi and Redmi Series; however, it also has official ROM support for few Android devices. Although MIUI is based on AOSP, which is open source, it consists of closed source and proprietary software of its own.
Visit here for Mi smartphones -
is a custom mobile operating system that a fork of MIUI, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project. Like its parent, it also developed by Xiaomi. Unlike the original MIUI, MIUI for POCO was specifically customised for the POCO line of smartphones, including a tweaked UI and hardware optimisations. Similarly to MIUI, which is also based on AOSP, MIUI for POCO also consists of a mix of open and closed source software.
is a front-end touch interface developed by Samsung Electronics with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. It is sometimes incorrectly identified as an independent operating system. Samsung Experience is used internally by Samsung for smartphones, feature phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties as it is closed source and proprietary. The Android version of Samsung Experience also comes with Samsung-made apps preloaded. With the release of Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+, Samsung Experience 8.1 was preinstall on it with introducing new function known as Samsung DeX. Similar to the concept of Microsoft Continuum, Samsung DeX allowed high end Galaxy devices such as S8/S8+ or Note 8 to connect into a docking station, which extends the functionality to allow desktop-like functionality by connecting a keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Samsung also announced "Linux on Galaxy", which allows to use the standard Linux distribution on the DeX platform.
is based on the open source Android Open Source Project and is developed by OnePlus to replace Cyanogen OS on OnePlus devices such as the OnePlus One, and it is preinstalled on the OnePlus 2, OnePlus X, OnePlus 3, OnePlus 3T, OnePlus 5, OnePlus 5T and OnePlus 6. As stated by Oneplus, OxygenOS is focused on stabilizing and maintaining of stock like those found on Nexus devices. It consists of mainly Google apps and minor UI customization to maintain the sleekness of pure Android.
or Pixel Launcher is developed by Google that is based on open source Android. Unlike the Nexus phones, where Google shipped with the "stock" Android, the UI that came with the first generation Pixel phones were slightly modified as compared to the "stock" Android. As part of the Google Pixel software, the Pixel UI and its home launcher are closed source and proprietary, thus it is only available on the Pixel family devices..
realme UI is a mobile operating system that developed by Realme which is based on OPPO ColorOS, which itself is based on the Android Open Source Project. The overall UI mostly resemble it predecessor, however with their own customized UI and element on top of the ColorOS to match their target audience.
is a custom mobile operating system based on the Android with all proprietary drivers and bloat closed source software removed.
TCL UI is a custom user interface that is developed by TCL Technology for their in house smartphone series, the OS is based on the Android Open Source Project.
Sony Xperia UI was the front-end UI that developed by Sony Mobile for their Sony Xperia series that is running Android platform. Sony Xperia UI mostly consists of Sony own's application such as Sony Music, Albums and Video Player. During its time as Timescape UI, the UI was different than the standard Android UI, instead of traditional apps dock on the bottom part, it was located at the four corner of the home screen, while the middle of the screen consist of the widget. However the recent development of UI are closely resemble to those of Stock Android.
is a front-end touch interface developed by ASUS with partners, featuring a full touch user interface. ZenUI is used by Asus for its Android phones and tablet computers, and is not available for licensing by external parties. ZenUI also comes preloaded with Asus-made apps like ZenLink.
is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. As a result, Chrome OS primarily supports web applications. Google announced the project in July 2009, conceiving it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud: hence Chrome OS primarily runs web applications.
Due to increase of popularity with 2-in-1 PCs, most recent Chromebooks are introduced with touch screen capability, with Android applications starting to become available for the operating system in 2014. And in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. With the support of Android applications, there are Chromebook devices that are positioned as tablet based instead of notebooks.
Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description.

Sailfish OS

is from Jolla. It is open source with GNU General Public License for middleware stack core which comes from MER. Sailfish due to Jolla's business model and due to alliances with various partners and due to intentional design of OS internals, is capable to adopt in several layers third party software including Jolla software e.g. Jolla's UI is proprietary software, so such components can be proprietary with many different kinds of licences. However, user can replace them with open source components like e.g. NEMO UI instead Jolla's UI.
After Nokia abandoned in 2011 the MeeGo project, most of the MeeGo team left Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo and Mer business opportunities. The MER standard allows it to be launched on any hardware with kernel compatible with MER. In 2012, Linux Sailfish OS based on MeeGo and using middleware of MER core stack distribution was launched for public use. The first device, the Jolla smartphone, was unveiled on May 20, 2013. In 2015, Jolla Tablet was launched and the BRICS countries declared it an officially supported OS there. Jolla started licensing Sailfish OS 2.0 for third parties. Some devices sold are updateable to Sailfish 2.0 with no limits.
Nemo Mobile is a community-driven OS, similar to Sailfish but attempting to replace its proprietary components, such as the user interface.
Each Sailfish OS version release is named after a Finnish lake:
VersionUpdateDateLake nameDescriptionärviärviärviärviärviÄijänpäivänjärviärviörnträsket to version 2.0; major UI revamp. transition to version 2.0; minor UI and function improvements.ärviämsänjoki October 2017KymijokiCbeta release. Xperia X only. October 2017Cbeta release. Xperia X only. October 2017Public release of Sailfish X. Xperia X only. October 2017Early access release. November 2017Public release. February 2018LapuanjokiEarly access release. February 2018Early access release. March 2018Public release. March 2018MouhijokiEarly access release. June 2018Public release. September 2018NurmonjokiEarly access release. September 2018Public release. October 2018LemmenjokiEarly access release. Introduction of the Sailfish OS 3.0 GUI. Includes changes from planned 2.2.2 release. November 2018Public release. January 2019SipoonkorpiEarly access release. January 2019Public release. January 2019Beta release. Xperia XA2 only. March 2019OulankaEarly access release. March 2019Public release. April 2019HossaEarly access release. May 2019Public release. May 2019Public release. July 2019SeitseminenEarly access release.


is a mobile operating system hosted by Linux Foundation, together with support from the Tizen Association, guided by a Technical Steering Group composed of Intel and Samsung.
Tizen is an operating system for devices including smartphones, tablets, In-Vehicle Infotainment devices, however currently it mainly focus on wearable and smart TVs. It is an open source system that aims to offer a consistent user experience across devices. Tizen's main components are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. According to Intel, Tizen "combines the best of LiMo and MeeGo." HTML5 apps are emphasized, with MeeGo encouraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that the "future belongs to HTML5-based applications, outside of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are firmly convinced that our investment needs to shift toward HTML5." Tizen will be targeted at a variety of platforms such as handsets, touch pc, smart TVs and in-vehicle entertainment. On May 17, 2013, Tizen released version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.
While Tizen itself was open source, most of the UX and UI layer that developed by Samsung was mainly closed source and proprietary, such as the TouchWiz UI on the Samsung Z's series smartphone and One UI for their Galaxy Watch wearable lines.
Current Tizen version list:
is from Kai. It is based on Firefox OS/Boot to Gecko. Unlike most mobile operating systems which focus on smartphones, KaiOS was developed mainly for feature phones, giving these access to more advanced technologies usually found on smartphones, such as app stores and Wi-Fi/4G capabilities.
It is a mix of closed-source and open-source components. FirefoxOS/B2G was released under the permissive MPL 2.0. It does not redistribute itself under the same license, so KaiOS is now presumably proprietary. KaiOS is not entirely proprietary, as it uses the copyleft GPL Linux kernel also used in Android.

Fully open-source, entirely permissive licenses


is a capability-based, real-time operating system currently being developed by Google. It was first discovered as a mysterious code post on GitHub in August 2016, without any official announcement. In contrast to prior Google-developed operating systems such as Chrome OS and Android, which are based on Linux kernels, Fuchsia is based on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel", a small operating system intended for embedded systems. This allows it to remove Linux and the copyleft GPL underwhich the Linux kernel is licensed; Fuchsia is licensed under the permissive BSD 3-clause, Apache 2.0, and MIT licenses. Upon inspection, media outlets noted that the code post on GitHub suggested Fuchsia's capability to run on universal devices, from embedded systems to smartphones, tablets and personal computers. In May 2017, Fuchsia was updated with a user interface, along with a developer writing that the project was not a for experimental, prompting media speculation about Google's intentions with the operating system, including the possibility of it replacing Android.


is a lightweight open source real-time operating system which is part of Huawei's "1+2+1" Internet of Things solution, which is similar to Google Android Things and Samsung Tizen. It is released under the permissive BSD 3-clause license. Huawei LiteOS features lightweight, low-power, fast-response, multi-sensor collaboration, multi-protocol interconnect connectivity, enabling IoT terminals to quickly access the network. Huawei LiteOS will make intelligent hardware development easier. Thereby accelerating the realization of the interconnection of all things. Currently LiteOS are introduce to the consumer market with the Huawei Watch GT series and their sub-brand Honor Magic Watch series.
Current LiteOS version list:
  • LiteOS V2.1 – released in May 2018

    Fully open-source, mixed copyleft and permissive licenses


is a Debian GNU/Linux derivative using only free software meeting the Debian Free Software Guidelines, mainly the copyleft GPL. PureOS is endorsed by Free Software Foundation as one of the freedom-respecting operating systems. It is developed by Purism, and was already in use on Purism's laptops before it was used on the Librem 5 smartphone. Purism, in partnership with GNOME and KDE, aims to separate the CPU from the baseband processor and include hardware kill switches for the phone's Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, camera, microphone and baseband processor, and provide both GNOME and KDE Plasma Mobile as options for the desktop environment.

Ubuntu Touch

is from Canonical Ltd.. It is open source and uses the GPL license. Ubuntu Touch as an OS is built using the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services via an LXC container, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android., the desktop environment of Ubuntu Touch is planned to be available as one of the default desktop options on the Librem 5 running PureOS as the operating system.
Though Canonical formally announced it was discontinuing the Ubuntu mobile OS with its integral component Unity8, the independent German non-profit UBPorts Community/ decided to take over the project. Canonical started Ubuntu Touch based on Ubuntu 15.04 and UBPorts upgraded the base to the nearest, current long-term support version Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
Original Canonical Ubuntu Touch version list:
  • Preview Version
  • OTA 2.x
  • OTA 3.x
  • OTA 4.x
  • OTA 5.x
  • OTA 6.x
  • OTA 7.x
  • OTA 8.x
  • OTA 9.x
  • OTA 10.x
  • OTA 11.x
  • OTA 12.x
  • OTA 13.x
  • OTA 14.x
  • OTA 15.x
UBPorts Ubuntu Touch version list:
  • 15.04 OTA-1
  • 15.04 OTA-2
  • 15.04 OTA-3
  • 16.04 OTA-4
  • 16.04 OTA-5
  • 16.04 OTA-6

    Plasma mobile

is a Plasma variant for smartphones. Plasma Mobile runs on Wayland and it is compatible with Ubuntu Touch applications, PureOS applications, and eventually Android applications via KDE's Shashlik project also sponsored by Blue Systems, or Anbox. It is under the copyleft GPLv2 license.
The Necuno phone uses Plasma Mobile. It is which is entirely open-source and thus does not have a cellular modem, so it must make calls by VOIP, like a pocket computer.


is based on the Alpine Linux Linux distribution. It is intended to run on older phone hardware. it is in alpha.


is a modern reimplementation of the Palm/HP webOS interface.

Closed source


was created by Apple Inc. It has the second largest installed base worldwide on smartphones, but the largest profits, due to aggressive price competition between Android-based manufacturers. It is closed source and proprietary, and is built on the open source Darwin operating system. The iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and second or third-generation Apple TV all use iOS, which is derived from macOS.
Native third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iPhone OS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed. In recent years, the jailbreaking scene has changed drastically due to Apple's continued efforts to secure their operating system and prevent unauthorized modifications. Currently, jailbreaks of recent iterations of iOS are only semi-untethered, which requires a device to be re-jailbroken at every boot, and exploits for jailbreaks are becoming increasingly hard to find and use.
Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.
Current iOS version list
  • iPhone OS 1.x
  • iPhone OS 2.x
  • iPhone OS 3.x
  • iOS 4.x
  • iOS 5.x
  • iOS 6.x
  • iOS 7.x
  • iOS 8.x
  • iOS 9.x
  • iOS 10.x
  • iOS 11.x
  • iOS 12.x
  • iOS 13.x


is a tablet operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. specifically for their iPad line of tablet computers. It was announced at the company's 2019 Worldwide Developers Conference, as a derivation from iOS but with a greater emphasis put on multitasking. It was released on September 24, 2019.
Current iPadOS version list
  • iPadOS 13.x


watchOS is the operating system of the Apple Watch, developed by Apple Inc. It is based on the iOS operating system and has many similar features. It was released on April 24, 2015, along with the Apple Watch, the only device that runs watchOS. It is currently the most widely used wearable operating system. Its features focus on convenience, such as being able to place phone calls and send texts, and health, such as fitness and heart rate tracking.
The most current version of the watchOS operating system is watchOS 6.

Kindle firmware

Kindle firmware is mobile operating system specifically design for Amazon Amazon Kindle e-readers, it is based on custom Linux kernel however it is entirely closed source and proprietary, and only runs on Amazon Kindle line up manufactured under Amazon brand.

Windows 10

is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released on July 29, 2015. Just like its predecessors, it was designed to run across multiple Microsoft product such as PCs and Tablets. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs.
Windows 10 also introduces the universal apps, expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Mixed Reality.
Current Windows 10 version list:
  • Windows 10 – Version 1507 "10.0.10240.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1511 "10.0.10586.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1607 "10.0.14393.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1703 "10.0.15063.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1709 "10.0.16299.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1803 "10.0.17134.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1809 "10.0.17763.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1903 "10.0.18362.x"
  • Windows 10 – Version 1909 "10.0.18363.x"

    Minor proprietary operating system

Other than the major mobile operating system from the major tech company, some company such as Huami, Huawei, realme, TCL and Xiaomi has their own proprietary RTOS that develop specifically for their own smartband and smartwatch that is design to be power efficient and low battery consumption that is neither based on Android nor Linux Kernel.
  • Proprietary Amazfit OS
Operating System that is primarily design for their Bip series, however Huami is currently developing the operating system to run on other company smartwatch as well.
  • Huawei/Honor Band Operating System
Huawei Band Operating system is a operating system specifically design and develop by Huawei for their fitness tracker, including smartband series from Honor.
  • realme Wearable Operating System
A proprietary operating system design to run on realme smartband and smartwatch.
A proprietary RTOS powering TCL and Alcatel brand smartband and smartwatch.
Proprietary RTOS that is develop by Huami for Xiaomi Mi Band series.

Under maintenance only

BlackBerry 10

is from BlackBerry. As a smartphone OS, it is closed source and proprietary, and only runs on phones and tablets manufactured by BlackBerry.
One of the dominant platforms in the world in late 2000s, its global market share was reduced significantly by mid-2010s. In late 2016, BlackBerry announced that it will continue to support the OS, with a promise to release 10.3.3. Therefore, BlackBerry 10 would not receive any major updates as BlackBerry and its partners would focus more on their Android base development.
Current BlackBerry 10 version list:
  • BlackBerry 10.0
  • BlackBerry 10.1
  • BlackBerry 10.2
  • BlackBerry 10.3 – major UI revamp
  • BlackBerry 10.3.3

    Discontinued software platforms

Open source


CyanogenMod was a custom mobile operating system based on the Android Open Source Project. It was a custom ROM that was co-developed by the CyanogenMod community. The OS did not include any proprietary apps unless the user installed them. Due to its open source nature, CyanogenMod allowed Android users who could no longer obtain update support from their manufacturer to continue updating their OS version to the latest one based on official releases from Google AOSP and heavy theme customization. The last version of the OS was CyanogenMod 13 which was based on Android Asus
On December 24, 2016, CyanogenMod announced on their blog that they would no longer be releasing any CyanogenMod updates. All development moved to LineageOS.
  • CyanogenMod 3
  • CyanogenMod 4
  • CyanogenMod 5
  • CyanogenMod 6
  • CyanogenMod 7
  • CyanogenMod 9
  • CyanogenMod 10
  • CyanogenMod 11
  • CyanogenMod 12
  • CyanogenMod 13
  • CyanogenMod 14
    Cyanogen OS
Cyanogen OS was based on CyanogenMod and maintained by Cyanogen Inc; however, it included proprietary apps and it was only available for commercial uses.
  • Cyanogen OS 11s
  • Cyanogen OS 12
  • Cyanogen OS 12.1
  • Cyanogen OS 13

    Firefox OS

is from Mozilla. It was an open source mobile operating system released under the Mozilla Public License built on the Android Linux kernel and used Android drivers, but did not use any Java-like code of Android.
According to Ars Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems." In September 2016, Mozilla announced that work on Firefox OS has ceased, and all B2G-related code would be removed from mozilla-central.


was from non-profit organization The Linux Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both unveiled MeeGo, a mobile operating system that combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia announced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in favor of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on June 21, 2011 at the Nokia Connection event in Singapore. LG announced its support for the platform. Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open source and GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its graphical user interface, frameworks, and libraries from the GNOME project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTK-based Hildon as its GUI and application framework.


was developed by Palm. webOS is an open source mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones and a tablet running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware would be discontinued, but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of webOS to LG Electronics, who used the operating system for its "smart" or Internet-connected TVs. However, HP retained patents underlying WebOS and cloud-based services such as the App Catalog.

Closed source

BlackBerry OS

In 1999, Research In Motion released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there were around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers. In early 2010s, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its company name to BlackBerry Limited and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10".


The Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for some models of smartphones. It is proprietary software, it was however used by Ericsson, Sending and Benq. The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although a slimmed-down version for basic phones was still developed until July 2014. Microsoft officially shelved the platform in favor of Windows Phone after its acquisition of Nokia.


platform was an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It was developed by Samsung Electronics. Its name is derived from "바다 ", meaning "ocean" or "sea" in Korean. It ranges from mid- to high-end smartphones. To foster adoption of Bada OS, since 2011 Samsung reportedly has considered releasing the source code under an open-source license, and expanding device support to include Smart TVs. Samsung announced in June 2012 intentions to merge Bada into the Tizen project, but would meanwhile use its own Bada operating system, in parallel with Google Android OS and Microsoft Windows Phone, for its smartphones. All Bada-powered devices are branded under the Wave name, but not all of Samsung's Android-powered devices are branded under the name Galaxy.
On February 25, 2013, Samsung announced that it will stop developing Bada, moving development to Tizen instead. Bug reporting was finally terminated in April 2014.

Palm OS

/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed source and proprietary. webOS was introduced by Palm in January 2009, as the successor to Palm OS with Web 2.0 technologies, open architecture and multitasking abilities.


Windows Mobile
is a family of proprietary operating systems from Microsoft aimed at business and enterprise users, based on Windows CE and originally developed for Pocket PC devices. In 2010 it was replaced with the consumer-focused Windows Phone.
Versions of Windows Mobile came in multiple editions, like "Pocket PC Premium," "Pocket PC Professional," "Pocket PC Phone," and "Smartphone" or "Professional," "Standard," and "Classic". Some editions were touchscreen-only and some were keyboard-only, although there were cases where device vendors managed to graft support for one onto an edition targeted at the other. Cellular phone features were also only supported by some editions. Microsoft started work on a version of Windows Mobile that would combine all features together, but it was aborted, and instead they focused on developing the non-backwards-compatible, touchscreen-only Windows Phone 7.
Windows Phone
is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone features a new touchscreen-oriented user interface derived from Metro design language. Windows Phone was replaced by Windows 10 Mobile in 2015.
Windows 10 Mobile
is from Microsoft. It is closed source and proprietary.
Unveiled on February 15, 2010, Windows Phone includes a user interface inspired by Microsoft's Metro Design Language. It is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices were made primarily by Microsoft Mobile/Nokia, and also by HTC and Samsung.
On January 21, 2015, Microsoft announced that the Windows Phone brand will be phased out and replaced with Windows 10 Mobile, bringing tighter integration and unification with its PC counterpart Windows 10, and provide a platform for smartphones and tablets with screen sizes under 8 inches.
On October 8, 2017, Microsoft officially announced that they would no longer push any major updates to Windows 10 Mobile, instead it would put it in maintenance mode, where Microsoft would push bug fixes and general improvements only, therefore Windows 10 Mobile would not receive any new feature updates.
On January 18, 2019, Microsoft announced that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, with no further security updates released after then, and that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones.
Current Windows 10 Mobile version list:
  • Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1511 – major UI update
  • Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1607
  • Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1703
  • Windows 10 Mobile – Version 1709

    Market share


In 2006, Android and iOS did not exist and only 64 million smartphones were sold. In 2018 Q1, 383.5 million smartphones were sold and global market share was 85.9% for Android and 14.1% for iOS.
According to StatCounter web use statistics, smartphones have majority use globally, with desktop computers used much less. Use varies however by continent with smartphones way more popular in the biggest continents, i.e. Asia, and the desktop still more popular in some, though not in North America.
The desktop is still popular in many countries, smartphones are more popular even in many developed countries. A few countries on any continent are desktop-minority; European countries are smartphone-majority, Poland and Turkey highest with 57.68% and 62.33%, respectively. In Ireland, smartphone use at 45.55% outnumbers desktop use and mobile as a whole gains majority when including the tablet share at 9.12%. Spain is also slightly desktop-minority.
The range of measured mobile web use varies a lot by country, and a StatCounter press release recognizes "India amongst world leaders in use of mobile to surf the internet" where the share is around 80% and desktop is at 19.56%, with Russia trailing with 17.8% mobile use.
Smartphones, first gained majority in December 2016, and it wasn't a Christmas-time fluke, as while close to majority after smartphone majority happened again in March 2017.
In the week from November 7–13, 2016, smartphones alone overtook desktop, for the first time. Mobile-majority applies to countries such as Paraguay in South America, Poland in Europe and Turkey; and most of Asia and Africa. Some of the world is still desktop-majority, with e.g. in the United States at 54.89%. However, in some territories of the United States, such as Puerto Rico, desktop is way under majority, with Windows under 30% overtaken by Android.
On October 22, 2016, mobile showed majority. Since October 27, the desktop hasn't shown majority, not even on weekdays. And smartphones alone have showed majority since December 23 to the end of the year, with the share topping at 58.22% on Christmas Day. To the "mobile"-majority share then of smartphones, tablets could be added giving a 63.22% majority. While an unusually high top, a similarly high also happened on Monday April 17, 2017, with then only smartphones share slightly lower and tablet share slightly higher, with them combined at 62.88%.
Formerly, according to StatCounter press release, the world has turned desktop-minority; as of 2016, at about 49% desktop use for that month, but mobile wasn't ranked higher, tablet share had to be added to it to exceed desktop share.

By operating system

  1. Windows includes all versions.
  2. BlackBerry includes all versions.
  3. Other includes all other smartphone OSes but not feature phone OSes.
QuarterAndroidiOSKaiOSWindowsBlackBerrySymbianOtherTotal smartphonesTotal phones
2018 Q1329,31354,05823,000131383,503n/a
2017 Q4n/a
2017 Q3n/a
2017 Q2321,18844,314733366,234n/a
2017 Q1327,16451,993821379,977n/a
2016 Q4352,67077,0391,092208530431,539n/a
2016 Q3327,67443,0001,484378756373,292n/a
2016 Q2296,91244,3951,971400681344,359n/a
2016 Q1293,77151,6302,400660791349,251n/a
2015 Q4325,39471,5264,395907887403,109n/a
2015 Q3298,79746,0625,8749771,133352,844477,898
2015 Q2271,01048,0868,1981,1531,229329,676445,758
2015 Q1265,01260,1778,2711,3251,268336,054457,273
2014 Q4279,05874,83210,4251,7341,286367,334460,261
2014 Q3254,35438,1879,0332,4201,310305,384461,064
2014 Q2243,48435,3458,0952,0442,044290,384444,190
2014 Q1227,54943,0627,5801,7141,371281,637448,966
2013 Q4219,61350,2248,5341,8071,994282,171490,342
2013 Q3205,02330,3308,9124,4014581108250,232455,642
2013 Q2177,89831,9007,4086,1806311310225,326435,158
2013 Q1156,18638,3325,9896,2191,3491971210,046425,822
2012 Q4144,72043,4576,1867,3332,5693397207,662472,076
2012 Q3122,48023,5504,0588,9474,4055739169,179427,730
2012 Q298,52928,9354,0877,9919,0725072153,686419,008
2012 Q181,06733,1212,7139,93912,4675085144,392419,108
2011 Q475,90635,4562,75913,18517,4584278149,042476,555
2011 Q360,49017,2951,70212,70119,5003497115,185440,502
2011 Q246,77619,6291,72412,65223,8533107107,740428,661
2011 Q136,35016,8832,58213,00427,599335799,775427,846
2010 Q430,80116,0113,41914,76232,6423515101,150452,037
2010 Q320,54413,4842,20412,50829,480291281,133417,086
2010 Q210,6538,7433,05911,62925,387258862,058367,987
2010 Q15,2278,3603,69610,75324,0682,40354,506359,605
2009 Q44,0438,6764,20310,50823,8572,51753,804347,103
2009 Q31,4257,0403,2608,52318,3152,53141,093308,895
2009 Q27565,3253,8307,78220,8812,39840,972286,122
2009 Q15753,8483,7397,53417,8252,98636,507269,120
2008 Q46394,0794,7147,44317,9493,31938,143314,708
2008 Q34,7204,0535,80018,1793,76336,515308,532
2008 Q28933,8745,59418,4053,45632,221304,722
2008 Q11,7263,8584,31218,4004,11332,408294,283
2007 Q41,9284,3744,02522,9033,53636,766330,055
2007 Q31,1044,1803,19220,6643,61232,752291,142
2007 Q22703,2122,47118,2733,62827,855272,604
2007 Q12,9312,08015,8444,08724,943259,039

2017 Q1292.750.60.340.34344.3
2016 Q4318.371.20.780.78391.0
2016 Q3315.345.40.91.6363.2
2016 Q2302.740.41.41.0345.5
2016 Q1291.353.82.791.40349.3
2015 Q4291.768.54.401.83366.4
2015 Q3329.0446.7014.673.94394.35
2015 Q2282.7647.
2015 Q1260.861.
2014 Q4289.174.510.701.401.80377.5
2014 Q3283.039.29.721.682.00335.0
2014 Q2255.335.
2014 Q1234.
2013 Q4226.
2013 Q3211.633.
2013 Q2187.431.
2013 Q1162.
2012 Q4159.847.
2012 Q3136.
2012 Q2104.826.
2012 Q189.935.13.39.710.43.9152.3
2011 Q483.436.32.412.818.34.6157.8
2011 Q367.716.31.411.317.34.0118.1
2011 Q250.820.42.512.518.33.9108.4
2011 Q136.718.62.613.826.43.5101.6