A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The female form of the title is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, to the wife of the person styled crown prince.
Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince who is first-in-line to a throne and is expected to succeed, barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent. In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less often than the substantive title.
Until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne. A crown princess would therefore be more likely to refer to the spouse of a crown prince. She would be styled crown princess, not in her own right but by courtesy.
DescriptionThe term crown prince is not used in European monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen or emperor/empress, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Male-precedence has been abolished in Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living.
In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince. It is also the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke ; along with hereditary prince, it was also the title borne by the heirs apparent to the thrones of the grand duchies, sovereign duchies and principalities, and of mediatized princely families in the German monarchies abolished in 1918.
Christian/Western traditional titlesMany monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent, often of historical origin:
- Duke of Brabant
- Duke of Braganza
- Duke of Cornwall, currently one of the titles of the Prince of Wales
- Duke of Rothesay, currently used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland
- Grand Prince
- Margrave of Moravia
- Prince of Asturias, also used by heir presumptives
- Prince of Girona
- Prince Imperial
- Prince of Orange, whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament
- Prince of Piedmont once conferred by King Joseph Bonaparte
- Prince Royal
- Prince of Turnovo
- Prince of Viana
- Rex iunior, lit. junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king
Current and past titles in this category include:
- Caesar or Kaisar in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, distinguished from the senior Augustus
- Symbasileus, lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior who was addressed as Autocrator
- Aetheling and edling, lit. of the royal family
- Duke of Estonia and Lolland
- Prince of Norway ; in 15th–19th centuries
- Duke of Valentinois, used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne
- Prince of Wales
- King of the Romans – an elective, rather than an inherited title, for the designated successor—usually the son, but sometimes the brother—of the Emperor
- King of Rome
- Duke of Sparta ; used briefly, within Greece, only by Prince Constantine, during the reign of his father King George I
- Marquess of Baux, used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne
- Prince of Brazil
- Duke of Scania
- Prince of Ani
- Prince of Alba Iulia
- Grand Voivode of Grahovo
- Prince of Venice ; for the heir presumptive to Napoleon I in his Kingdom of Italy
- Duke of Calabria ; prior to the accession of King Robert the title of the Neapolitan heir was Prince of Salerno
As a title for an heir apparent used today
- Bahrain – Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
- Brunei – Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah
- Denmark – Crown Prince Frederik, Count of Montpezat
- Jordan – Crown Prince Hussein
- Kuwait – Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
- Malaysia: Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong Nazrin Shah of Perak
- *Johor – Crown Prince Tunku Ismail Idris ibni Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
- *Kedah – Crown Prince Tunku Sarafuddin Badlishah Sultan Sallehuddin
- *Kelantan – Crown Prince Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra ibni Sultan Ismail Petra
- *Negeri Sembilan – Crown Prince Tunku Ali Redhauddin ibni Tuanku Muhriz
- *Pahang – Crown Prince Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah ibni Al-Sultan Abdullah
- *Perak – Crown Prince Raja Jaafar ibni Raja Muda Musa
- *Perlis – Crown Prince Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra Jamalullail
- *Selangor – Crown Prince Tengku Amir Shah ibni Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah
- *Terengganu – Crown Prince Tengku Muhammad Ismail ibni Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
- Morocco – Crown Prince Moulay Hassan
- Norway – Crown Prince Haakon
- Saudi Arabia – Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman
- Swaziland –
- Sweden – Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland
- Thailand –
- Tonga – Crown Prince Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala
- United Arab Emirates: each of the constituent emirates of the U.A.E. uses the title of 'Crown Prince' for their heirs apparent:
- *Abu Dhabi – Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan
- *Dubai – Crown Prince Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
- *Fujairah – Crown Prince Mohammed bin Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi
- *Ajman – Crown Prince Ammar bin Humaid Al Nuaimi
- *Ras Al-Khamiah – Crown Prince Muhammed bin Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi
- *Sharjah – Crown Prince Sultan bin Muhammad bin Sultan Al Qasimi
- *Umm al-Quwain – Crown Prince Rashid bin Saud bin Rashid Al Mua'lla
- Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan
- Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece.
- Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran.
- Paras, Crown Prince of Nepal
- Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia.
Other specific traditions
Persia, Pahlavi dynasty and Qajar dynasty, the full style was Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun Vali Ahd, Shahzada , i.e. His August Imperial Highness the Heir Apparent, Prince...;
- the above component vali ahd meaning 'successor by virtue of a covenant' was adopted by many oriental monarchies, even some non-Muslim, e.g. Walet as alternative title for the Nepali royal heir apparent; first used Crown Prince Trailokya in the middle of the nineteenth century, taken from the Mughal title 'Vali Ahd'
- Yuvaraja was part of the full title in many princely states of India, e.g.
- *in Jammu and Kashmir, the heir apparent was styled
- The cognates of Chinese
|if the heir apparent is a:||son||grandson|
|Chinese||Huang Taizi||Huang Taisun|
|Vietnamese||Hoàng Thái Tử||Hoàng Thái Tôn|
- During the Joseon Dynasty in Korea, the crown prince was referred as Dong-gung due to the location of his residence from the main palace; or wangseja. He was not necessarily the first-born son, wonja.
- Siam Makutrajakuman in Thailand since 1886.
- Krom Phrarajawangboworn Sathanmongkol or Phra Maha Uparaja or commonly called Wang Na in Thailand prior to 1886.
- Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Anom in Yogyakarta sultanate and Surakarta, Indonesia.
- Raja Muda or Tengku Mahkota in the Malay sultanates of Malaysia.
- Pengiran Muda Mahkota in Brunei
- Jaguar Prince
- Ka Haku O Hawaii or "The Lord of Hawaii" in the Hawaiian language.
- Aremo, "First Son and Heir" in the Yoruba language of West Africa, used as a royal title in many of the kingdoms of the region.
- Lee Jae-yong, South Korean billionaire and Chairman of Samsung referred to as the "Crown Prince of Samsung"