URI fragment

In computer hypertext, a URI fragment is a string of characters that refers to a resource that is subordinate to another, primary resource. The primary resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier, and the fragment identifier points to the subordinate resource.
The fragment identifier introduced by a hash mark # is the optional last part of a URL for a document. It is typically used to identify a portion of that document. The generic syntax is specified in RFC 3986. The hash-mark separator in URIs is not part of the fragment identifier.


In URIs, a hash mark # introduces the optional fragment near the end of the URL. The generic RFC 3986 syntax for URIs also allows an optional query part introduced by a question mark ?. In URIs with a query and a fragment, the fragment follows the query. Query parts depend on the URI scheme and are evaluated by the server—e.g., http: supports queries unlike ftp:. Fragments depend on the document MIME type and are evaluated by the client. Clients are not supposed to send URI fragments to servers when they retrieve a document, and without help from a local application fragments do not participate in HTTP redirections.
A URI ending with # is permitted by the generic syntax and is a kind of empty fragment. In MIME document types such as text/html or any XML type, empty identifiers to match this syntactically legal construct are not permitted. Web browsers typically display the top of the document for an empty fragment.
The fragment identifier functions differently to the rest of the URI: its processing is exclusively client-sided with no participation from the web server, though the server typically helps to determine the MIME type, and the MIME type determines the processing of fragments. When an agent requests a web resource from a web server, the agent sends the URI to the server, but does not send the fragment. Instead, the agent waits for the server to send the resource, and then the agent processes the resource according to the document type and fragment value.


Several proposals have been made for fragment identifiers for use with plain text documents, or to refer to locations within HTML documents in which the author has not used anchor tags: