Small data is data that is 'small' enough for human comprehension. It is data in a volume and format that makes it accessible, informative and actionable. Just only one apple fall on Isaac Newton’s head, not ten, not thousand. The term "big data" is about machines and "small data" is about people. This is to say that eyewitness observations or five pieces of related data could be small data. Small data is what we used to think of as data. The only way to comprehend Big data is to reduce the data into small, visually-appealing objects representing various aspects of large data sets. Big Data is all about finding correlations, but Small Data is all about finding the causation, the reason why. A formal definition of small data has been proposed by Allen Bonde, former vice-president of Innovation at Actuate - now part of OpenText: "Small data connects people with timely, meaningful insights, organized and packaged – often visually – to be accessible, understandable, and actionable for everyday tasks." Another definition of small data is:
The small set of specific attributes produced by the Internet of Things. These are typically a small set of sensor data such as temperature, wind speed, vibration and status.
It was estimated that “If one takes the top 100 biggest innovations of our time, perhaps around 60% to 65% percent are really based on Small Data.” as Martin Lindstrom puts it. Small data includes everything from Snapchat to simple objects such as the post-it note. Lindstrom believes we become so focused on Big-Data that we tend to forget about more basic concepts and creativity. Lindstrom defines Small Data "as seemingly insignificant observations you identify in consumers’ homes, is everything from how you place your shoes on how you hang your paintings". He thus considers that one should perfectly master the basic in order to mine and find correlations.
Uses in business
Bonde has written about the topic for Forbes, Direct Marketing News, CMO.com and other publications. According to Martin Lindstrom, in his book, " Seemingly insignificant behavioural observations containing very specific attributes pointing towards an unmet customer need. Small data is the foundation for breakthrough ideas or completely new ways to turnaround brands." His approach is based on the combination of the observation of small samples with intuition. Marketers can obtain market insights from gathering Small Data by engaging with and observing people in their own environments. In comparison to Big Data, Small Data has the power to trigger emotions and to provide insights into the reasons behind the behaviours of customers. It may uncover detailed information on a person's extroversion or introversion, self-confidence, whether one is having problems in his/her relationship, etc. According to Lindstrom, relationships among people and customer segments are organized around four criteria:
Climate: It reveals for example how a person's environment affects their diet.
Tradition: Cultural norms influence people's behaviors and interactions.
Many companies underestimate the power of Small Data, using samples of millions of consumers instead of recognizing the value of closely observing small samples in their market research. In his book, Lindstrom defines "7Cs", which companies should consider in the attempt to derive meaningful customer insights and market trends through small data from their customers:
Collecting: Understanding the manner in which observations are translated inside a home.
Clues: Uncovering other distinctive emotional reflections that can be observed.
Connecting: Identifying the consequences of emotional behaviour.
Causation: Understanding what emotions are being evoked.
Correlation: Identifying the initial date of appearance of the behaviour or emotion.
Compensation: Identifying the unmet or unfulfilled desire.
Concept: Defining the “big idea” compensation for the identified consumer need.
Some of Lindstrom's clients such as Lowes Foods looked at data in a different way and actually chose to live with the customer. “As you enter their store, they have now created an amazing community where every staff member acts in a character mood, based on Small Data”. The supermarket made everything it can to make the customer feel at home. All the behaviours of employees are inspired by customer feedbacks gathered from interviews directly done at customer’s home.
Researchers at Cornell University started developing applications to monitor health problems in patients, based on small data. This is an initiative of Cornell's Small Data Lab, in close cooperation with Weill Cornell Medicine College, led by Deborah Estrin. The Small Data Lab developed a series of apps, focusing not only on gathering data from patients' pain but also tracking habits in areas such as grocery shopping. In the case of patients with rheumatoid arthritis for example, which has flares and remissions that do not follow a particular cycle, the app gathers information passively, thus allowing to forecast when a flare might be coming up based on small changes in behaviour. Other apps developed also include monitoring online grocery shopping, to use this information from every user to adapt their groceries to the recommendations of nutritionists, or monitoring email language to identify patterns that might indicate "fluctuations in cognitive performance, fatigue, side effects of medication or poor sleep, and other conditions and treatments that are typically self-reported and self-medicated".
In 2015, Boeing established the analytics lab for aerospace data in cooperation with the Carnegie Mellon University to leverage the university's leadership in machine learning, language technologies and data analytics. One of the initiatives projects aims to by standardize maintenance logs using AI to dramatically reduce costs. Currently, there is no standardized procedure to document maintenance logs leading to small but highly unstructured data sets. As a result, it becomes highly difficult for maintenance workers to translate these variations in maintenance logs within a short period of time. However, with AI and a narrow data set of common aircraft maintenance terminology, it becomes possible to dynamically translate these logs in real time. By using AI to enhance the speed and accuracy of the airline maintenance workflow, airlines stand to save billions according to the Harvard Business Review.