A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.8.6, 7, 8, and 9, consisting of students from ages 11–15.
ArgentinaThe ciclo básico of secondary education is roughly equivalent to middle school.
As an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", and "senior".
In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of
- early adolescent needs
- guiding principles for educators
- appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12.
Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools. The middle schools cover years 5 to 8.
BangladeshIn Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Generally, schools are from class 1 to class 10. It means lower primary, upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought of as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 10 are considered high school while 11–12 is called college.
- 1-5 is known as primary
- 6-8 is known as lower secondary
- 9-10 is known as secondary
- 11-12 is known as higher secondary also known as college.
CanadaIn Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, and sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are usually grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity.
Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8.
In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used particularly in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga, Brampton, and Kitchener-Waterloo. In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name.
Quebec uses a grade system that is different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec, there is no Middle school section. The Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V.
ChileChile does not have middle schools, they instead have educacion basica that teaches basic education like elementary school, and educacion media, which is middle education like middle school or high school. Educacion basica is from 1st grade to 6th grade, and educacion media from 7th grade to 12th grade. Communities do not consider the 7th and 8th grades being part of educacion media despite the government rendering it, communities treat the grades as middle school.
ChinaIn the People's Republic of China, secondary school has two stages, junior stage , some places are grades 6–9 ) and senior stage . The junior stage education, equivalent to a U.S. middle school, is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens; while the senior stage education is optional but considered as critical preparation for college education. Some middle schools have both stages while some have either of them.
The admissions for most students to enroll in upper secondary schools from the junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments. Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage.
ColombiaSecondary education is divided into basic secondary and mid-secondary. The students in basic secondary, roughly equivalent to middle school, are 11 or 12 to 15 or 16 years old.
Students have the opportunity to enroll in high school from Grade 6 or Grade 8 of elementary school, spending eight or six years respectively at high school that otherwise takes four years. Thus they can spend five years in elementary school, followed by eight in high school. The first four years of the eight-year study program at high school are comparable with junior high school. Gymnasium focuses on a more advanced academic approach to education. All other types of high schools except gymnasiums and conservatories accept only students that finished Grade 9.
EcuadorThe 4th and last level of educación general básica is roughly equivalent to middle school.algebra and geometry are taught instead of "mathematics." In the second preparatory phase, students study science, geography, the history of Egypt starting with pharaonic history, including Coptic history, Islamic history, and concluding with modern history. The students are taught two languages, Arabic and English. Middle school lasts for three years.
FranceIn France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which lasts four years from the :fr:Classe de sixième française to the :fr:Classe de troisième française, accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 14. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a Brevet des collèges if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects, but also on a series of skills completed during the last year and on oral examinations. They can then enter high school, which lasts three years from the :fr:Seconde to the :fr:Terminale until the baccalauréat, and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study.
GeorgiaIn Georgia,the equivalent period to middle school covers ages 12 to 15, from the 7th grade to the 10th and guarantees basic educational degree certificate.
GibraltarThere are four middle schools in Gibraltar, following the English model of middle-deemed-primary schools accommodating pupils aged between 9 and 12. The schools were opened in 1972 when the government introduced comprehensive education in the country.
GreeceIn Greece, the equivalent period to middle school is called γυμνάσιο, which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th, and 9th grade.
IndiaIn India, Middle School is classified as Upper Primary. Each state has its own State Board. Each has its own standards, which might be different from the Central Boards. In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th is known as a secondary school.
The levels of education in India are:
- Pre-Primary – Nursery to KG
- Primary – Classes I to IV
- Middle School – Classes V to VIII
- High school – Classes IX to X
- Intercollege – Classes XI to XII
Although compulsory education ends at junior high, most pursue higher education. There are around 22,000 middle schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector.
IranIran calls Middle School Guidance School, which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th and 9th grade.
IsraelIn most of the cities in Israel, middle school covers ages 12 to 15. From the 7th grade to the 9th.
ItalyIn Italy the equivalent is the Scuola secondaria di secondo grado formerly and commonly called middle lower school, often shortened to middle school. When the Scuola secondaria di secondo grado, the equivalent of high school, was formerly called middle higher school, commonly called Superiori. The Middle School lasts three years from the student age of 11 to age 14. Since 2009, after Gelmini reform, the middle school was renamed Scuola secondaria di primo grado.
JamaicaMiddle school in Jamaica is called "Junior High School." It is from grade 7–9 but this idea is becoming rare now so these grades are considered lower secondary.
JapanJunior high schools are for children aged twelve through fifteen years old.National diploma examination.
After 2000 there was an increased interest in middle schooling with at least seven schools offering education to this age group opening around the country in Auckland, Cambridge, Hamilton, Christchurch and Upper Hutt.
PeruThere aren't middle schools in Peru. Students aged 12 to 15 attend the first years of educación secundaria
PhilippinesSince the implementation of the K–12 education system, middle school education in the Philippines is called "Junior High School." It lasts for 4 years from Grades 7 to 10 for students age 12 to 16. Some schools, such as Miriam College in Loyola Heights as well as Lourdes School of Quezon City in Sta. Mesa Heights, have their Middle Schools from Grades 6 to 8. It is preceded by a 6-year elementary school and followed by a 2-year "senior high school" program.
Before that, there were no official middle school programs implemented and the equivalent years was simply called "High School" which ranged from First Year to Fourth Year.World War II.
The middle schools were reinstated in Poland in 1999 now lasting three years after six years of primary school. Pupils entering gimnazjum are usually 13 years old. Middle school is compulsory for all students, and it is also the final stage of mandatory education. In the final year students take a standardized test to evaluate their academic skills. Higher scorers in the test are allowed first pick of school if they want to continue their education, which is encouraged.
Starting with the school year 2017/18, middle schools are scheduled to be disbanded and primary schools to be extended to lasting eight years, as it was before 1999.
- 1st cycle – former primary education
- "1st year"
- "2nd year"
- "3rd year"
- "4th year"
- 2nd cycle – former preparatory education
- "5th year"
- "6th year"
- 3rd cycle
- "7th year"
- "8th year"
- "9th year"
- High School
- "10th year"
- "11th year"
- "12th year"
RussiaMiddle school in Russia covers grades 5 to 9, and is a natural continuation of primary school activities. Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as English or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model, where teachers stay in their classrooms and pupils change rooms during breaks. Examples of courses include mathematics, visual arts, Russian language, foreign language, history, literature, geography, biology, computer science, chemistry, social theory. The education process is done in numbered quarters, with the first quarter covering September and October, second quarter November and December, third quarter going from mid January to mid March, fourth quarter covering April and May. There are one week long holidays between quarters 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4, somewhat longer holidays between quarters 2 and 3 to allow for New Year festivities, and a three-month break between the years. At the end of middle school most people stay in school for two more years and get a certificate allowing them to pursue university, but some switch to vocational-technical schools.music and gym to a more serious curriculum with a course load that better mirrors high school. Middle school is the first time children have separate teachers for each subject and are introduced to courses like chemistry, biology, a second foreign language and physics. Both elementary and middle school are compulsory in Serbia, after which almost all students take the state-issued universal entrance exam to qualify for high school, be it a Gymnasium, a specialized high school for subjects like Economics or Medicine, or a Vocational school.
SingaporeIn Singapore, middle school is usually referred to as secondary school. Students start secondary school after completing primary school at the age of 13, and to 16, or 17. Students from the Special and Express courses take the GCE 'O' Levels after four years at the end of secondary education, and students from the Normal courses take the GCE 'N' Level examinations after four years, and the Normal Academic students has the option to continue for the O Levels. Selected excelling students also have the option to change classes which then affect the years they study. After completing secondary school, students move on to pre-tertiary education.Somali, Arabic, English, Religion, Science, Geography, History, Math, Textiles, Art and Design, Physical Education and sometimes Music. In some middle schools, it is obligatory to study Italian.
After ESO, students can continue their pre-university education attending to Bachillerato or choose a Ciclo de Formación Profesional.
TaiwanJunior high schools when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called primary middle school. Taiwanese students older than twelve normally attend junior high school. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter middle school.
United KingdomEngland and Wales, local education authorities introduced middle schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 4 and 7, Middle Schools for 7–11 year-olds, and then upper or high schools for 11–16 year-olds. Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a comprehensive system.
Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used:
- 4–6 First schools, followed by 7–11 "middle schools," as suggested by Plowden
- 5–9 First schools, followed by 9–13 "middle schools"
- 5–10 First schools followed by 10–13 "middle schools," or intermediate schools
In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school.
Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of local education authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary and Secondary schools. There are now fewer than 150 middle schools still operational in the United Kingdom, meaning that approximately 90% of middle schools have closed or reverted to primary school status since 1980. The system of 8–12 middle schools has fallen into complete disuse.
Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which have more primary year groups than KS3 or KS4 are termed "deemed primaries" or "middles-deemed-primaries," while those with more secondary-aged pupils, or with pupils in Y11 are termed "deemed secondaries" or "middles-deemed-secondaries." For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed". Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach. Legally all-through schools are also considered middle schools, although they are rarely referred to as such.
Some middle schools still exist in various areas of England. They are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. See List of middle schools in England.Grangemouth middle schools, Falkirk between 1975 and 1987. The label of "junior high school" is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 14, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school.Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon District Council area in County Armagh, the Dickson Plan operates, whereby pupils attend a primary school from ages 4–10, a junior high school from 11–14, and a senior high school or grammar school from 14–19.
United StatesMiddle schools in the United States usually cover grades 6–8 or 7–9. Historically, local public control have allowed for some variation in the organisation of schools. Elementary school includes kindergarten through to fifth or sixth grade but some elementary schools have four or eight grades - up to ages 10 or 14. Basic subjects are taught and pupils often remain in one or two classrooms throughout the school day, except for physical education, library, music, art, and computer classes. In 2001, there were about 3.6 million children in each grade in the United States. "Middle schools" and "junior high schools" are schools that span grades 5 or 6 to 8 and 7 to 8, respectively, but junior high schools spanning grades 7 to 9 are also common.
The range defined by either is often based on demographic factors, such as an increase or decrease in the relative numbers of younger or older students, with the aim of maintaining stable school populations. At this time, pupils are given more independence, moving to different classrooms for different subjects, which includes math, social studies, science, and language arts. Also, pupils are able to choose some of their class subjects. Usually, starting in ninth or tenth grade, grades become part of a pupil's official transcript. In the U.S., children within this grade-range are sometimes referred to as "junior highers".
The “junior high school” concept was introduced in 1909, in Columbus, Ohio. Junior high schools were created for "bridging the gap between the elementary and the high school", an emphasis credited to Charles W. Eliot. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, most American elementary schools had grades 1 through 8, and this organization still exists, where some concepts of middle school organization have been adapted to the intermediate grades. As time passed, the junior high school concept increased quickly as new school districts proliferated, or systems modernized buildings and curricula. This expansion continued through the 1960s. Jon Wiles, author of Developing Successful K–8 Schools: A Principal's Guide, said that "a major problem" for the original model was "the inclusion of the ninth grade", because of the lack of instructional flexibility, due to the requirement of having to earn high school credits in the ninth grade and that "the fully adolescent ninth grader in junior high school did not seem to belong with the students experiencing the onset of puberty".
The new "middle school" model began to appear in the mid-1960s. Wiles said, "At first, it was difficult to determine the difference between a junior high school and a middle school, but as the middle school became established, the differences became more pronounced". Middle school is in between elementary school and high school, and has 6 to 8th graders. Junior high schools prepare seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students for high school.
The faculty is organised into academic departments that operate more or less independently of one another.
The middle school format has now replaced the junior high format by a ratio of about ten to one in the United States, but at least two school districts had incorporated both systems in 2010.
Both these stages are commonly known as "Liceo".
In some institutions called "Technical Schools" there is an extra grade, for those who want to graduate as "Middle technician" in a certain area. This education would allow them to be hired at a higher level, or get introduced more easily into a college career.
VietnamSecondary school, or Junior High school, includes grade 6 to 9. After finishing grade 9, students have to take the national graduating test, which includes sections on Mathematics, Literature and English. The maximum score for each test is 10, with the first two subjects multiplied by two for a total possible score of 50. Reward points from a vocational course could also be added to the final score.
Some public schools use graduating exam scores and student transcripts to make their decisions. Many other public and private schools require students who apply for those schools to take their entrance exams. The administration team student transcripts and exam scores to decide whether students are qualified based on their admissions criteria.