Jakarta EE

, formerly Java Enterprise Edition and Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition is a set of specifications, extending Java SE 8 with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services. Jakarta EE applications are run on reference runtimes, that can be microservices or application servers, which handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components it is deploying.
Jakarta EE is defined by its specification. The specification defines APIs and their interactions. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Jakarta EE compliant.
Examples of contexts in which Jakarta EE referencing runtimes are used are: e-commerce, accounting, banking information systems.


The platform was known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE from version 1.2, until the name was changed to Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE in version 1.5.
Java EE was maintained by Oracle under the Java Community Process. On September 12, 2017, Oracle Corporation announced that it would submit Java EE to the Eclipse Foundation.
The Eclipse top-level project has been named Eclipse Enterprise for Java. The Eclipse Foundation was forced to change the name because Oracle owns the trademark for the name "Java" and renamed the Java EE platform to Jakarta EE. The name should not be confused with the former Jakarta Project which fostered a number of current and former Java projects at the the Apache Software Foundation.
Jakarta EE includes several specifications that serve different purposes, like generating web pages, reading and writing from a database in a transactional way, managing distributed queues.
The Jakarta EE APIs include several technologies that extend the functionality of the base Java SE APIs, such as Jakarta Enterprise Beans, connectors, servlets, Jakarta Server Pages and several web service technologies.

Web specifications

In an attempt to limit the footprint of web containers, both in physical and in conceptual terms, the web profile was created, a subset of the Jakarta EE specifications.
The Jakarta EE web profile comprises the following:
SpecificationJava EE 6Java EE 7Java EE 8
Jakarta EE 8
Jakarta EE 9
Jakarta Servlet3.
Jakarta Server Pages
Jakarta Expression Language
Jakarta Debugging Support for Other Languages
Jakarta Standard Tag Library
Jakarta Server Faces
Jakarta RESTful Web Services
Jakarta WebSocket
Jakarta JSON Processing
Jakarta JSON Binding1.12.0
Jakarta Annotations
Jakarta Enterprise Beans 3.1 Lite3.2 Lite3.2 Lite4.0 Lite
Jakarta Transactions
Jakarta Persistence
Jakarta Bean Validation1.
Jakarta Managed Beans1.
Jakarta Interceptors1.
Jakarta Contexts and Dependency Injection
Jakarta Dependency Injection1.
Jakarta Security1.02.0
Jakarta Authentication1.01.12.0

Certified referencing runtimes

Although by definition all Jakarta EE implementations provide the same base level of technologies, they can differ considerably with respect to extra features, installed size, memory footprint, startup time, etc.
Referencing runtimeDeveloperJava EE 8 certified – FullJava EE 8 certified – WebJava EE 7 certified – FullJava EE 7 certified – WebJava EE 6 certified – Full
Official Oracle page for Java EE Compatibility.
Java EE 6 certified – WebJava EE 5 certifiedJ2EE 1.4 certifiedLicensing
GlassFish server Open Source EditionOracle v5.0 v5.0 v4.x v4.x v3.x and upward v3.x Web Profile v2.1.x
Oracle GlassFish ServerOracle v3 based on the open source GlassFish application server Sun Java System Application Server v9.0 Sun Java System Application Server v8.2
Oracle WebLogic ServerOracle 14.1.1 12.2.1 v12c v10.3.5.0 v9
WildFlyRed Hat v14.x v14.x v8.1 v8.0.0.Final v7.1 v6.0 and v7.0 v5.1 v4.x
JBoss Enterprise Application PlatformRed Hat v7.2 v7.0 v7.0 v6.0 v5
IBM WebSphere Application ServerIBM v9.x v9.x v8 v7
IBM WebSphere Application Server LibertyIBM v18.0.0.2 v18.0.0.2 v8.5.5.6 v8.5.5.6 v8.5.5
IBM v18.0.0.2 v18.0.0.2
IBM WebSphere Application Server Community EditionIBM v3.0 v2.1
Apache GeronimoApache v3.0-beta-1 v2.0 v1.0
JEUSTmaxSoft v8 v7 v6 v5
Cosminexus Application ServerHitachi v10.0 v9
:ja:Interstage|Fujitsu Interstage Application ServerFujitsu v12.0 v1 Azure/v10.1
BES Application ServerBaolande v9.5-
Apache TomEEApache 7
Resin ServerCaucho v4.0
SiwpasOW2 v6.0
JOnASOW2 v5.3 rc1
SAP NetWeaverSAP v2.x
Oracle Containers for Java EEOracle
Oracle iPlanet Web ServerOracle Sun Java System Web Server
Oracle Application Server 10gOracle
Pramati ServerPramati v5.0
Trifork T4Trifork
Sybase Enterprise Application ServerSybase

Code sample

The code sample shown below demonstrates how various technologies in Java EE 7 are used together to build a web form for editing a user.
In Jakarta EE a UI can be built using Jakarta Servlet, Jakarta Server Pages, or Jakarta Server Faces with Facelets. The example below uses JSF and Facelets. Not explicitly shown is that the input components use the Jakarta EE Bean Validation API under the covers to validate constraints.

xmlns:h="http://xmlns.jcp.org/jsf/html" xmlns:f="http://xmlns.jcp.org/jsf/core">

Example Backing Bean class

To assist the view, Jakarta EE uses a concept called a "Backing Bean". The example below uses and Jakarta Enterprise Beans.

public class UserEdit

Example Data Access Object class

To implement business logic, Jakarta Enterprise Beans is the dedicated technology in Jakarta EE. For the actual persistence, JDBC or Jakarta Persistence can be used. The example below uses EJB and JPA. Not explicitly shown is that JTA is used under the covers by EJB to control transactional behavior.

public class UserDAO

Example Entity class

For defining entity/model classes Jakarta EE provides the Jakarta Persistence, and for expressing constraints on those entities it provides the Bean Validation API. The example below uses both these technologies.

public class User