Financial system

A 'Financial system' is a system that allows the exchange of funds between financial market participants such as lenders, investors, and borrowers. Financial systems operate at national and global levels. They consist of complex, closely related services, markets, and institutions intended to provide an efficient and regular linkage between investors and depositors.
In other words financial system can be known where ever the exist the exchange of financial medium while there is an reallocation of funds into the needy areas to utilize the potential of ideal money and place them in use to get benefits out of them. This whole mechanism is known as financial system.
Money, credit, and finance are used as medium of exchange in financial systems. They serve as a medium of known value for which goods and services can be exchanged as an alternative to bartering. A modern financial system may include banks, financial markets, financial instruments, and financial services. Financial systems allow funds to be allocated, invested, or moved between economic sectors. They enable individuals and companies to share the associated risks.

The components of a financial system

Financial institutions

s provide financial services for members and clients. It is also termed as financial intermediaries because they act as middlemen between the savers and borrowers.


s are financial intermediaries that lend money to borrowers to generate revenue and accept deposits. They are typically regulated heavily, as they provide market stability and consumer protection. Banks include:
s facilitate financial services like investment, risk pooling, and market brokering. They generally do not have full banking licenses. Non-bank financial institutions include:
s are markets in which securities, commodities, and fungible items are traded at prices representing supply and demand. The term "market" typically means the institution of aggregate exchanges of possible buyers and sellers of such items.

Primary markets

The primary market generally refers to new issues of stocks, bonds, or other financial instruments. The primary market is divided in two segment, the money market and the capital market.

Secondary markets

The secondary market refers to transactions in financial instruments that were previously issued.

Financial instruments

s are tradable financial assets of any kind. They include money, evidence of ownership interest in an entity, and contracts.

Cash instruments

A cash instrument's value is determined directly by markets. They may include securities, loans, and deposits.

Derivative instruments

A derivative instrument is a contract that derives its value from one or more underlying entities.

Financial services

are offered by a large number of businesses that encompass the finance industry. These include credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, stock brokerages, and investment funds.