Northern Sotho language

Northern Sotho or Sesotho sa Leboa - is Sotho-Tswana language spoken in South Africa's northeastern provinces of Limpopo, Gauteng, and parts of Mpumalanga. According to the South African National Census of 2011, it is the first language of over 4,6 million people, making it the 5th most spoken language in South Africa. The signed version of the Constitution of South Africa refers to "Sepedi" as an official language. Its official translation into the language refers to it as "Sesotho sa Leboa" in the article about languages, but as "Sepedi" on the front page.
Northern Sotho is equated with standardised dialect,Sepedi. Although Sepedi and not Northern Sotho is recognized by the signed version of the Constitution of South Africa as an official language. The Pan South African Language Board and the Northern Sotho National Lexicography Unit now specifically endorse the names Northern Sotho or Sesotho sa Leboa.

Sepedi Vs Nothern Sotho

The original confusion arose from the fact Tha the Northern Sotho written language was based largely on the Sepedi dialect, but has subsequently provided a common writing system for 20 or more varieties of the Sotho-Tswana languages spoken in the former Transvaal.

Dialects and Varieties

Northern Sotho can be subdivided into Highveld-Sotho, which consists of comparatively recent immigrants mostly from the west and southwest parts of South Africa, and Lowveld-Sotho, which consists of a combination of immigrants from the north of South Africa and Sotho inhabitants of longer standing. Like other Sotho-Tswana people their languages are named after totemic animals and, sometimes, by alternating or combining these with the names of famous chiefs.

The Highveld-Sotho

The group consists of the following dialects:
The group consists of the Lobedu, Narene, Phalaborwa, Mogoboya, Kone, Kgaga, Pulana, Pai, and Kutswe.


Before Moshoeshoe and his Basotho nation of Lesotho, Basotho people were there. Moshoshoe didn't found Basotho, but he founded a nation made up of Sesotho speaking people from different Sesotho speaking clans in which the British imperialist in Southern Africa errenously called the Basotho nation cutting them off from the rest of other Basothos outside Lesotho in the Orange Free State and Transvaal in present day South Africa, Botswana as if Moshoshoe and his people were unique from other Basotho people. Basotho people were there before Moshoshoe the son of Mokhachane of another Basotho clan of Bamokoteli clan, united the smaller and vulnerable clans of Basothos under his Bakwena clan leadership during the Shaka wars of difaqane after other Basothos have migrated to different directions from their cradle in Ntswanatsatsi. Moshoshoe and his Bakwena clan and the rest of the other Basotho clan originates from Ntswanatsatsi in present day South Africa. Families moved away from each other in Ntswanatsatsi and started clans using a totem as symbol of their clan and different families moved to different directions within the precolonial South Africa under different leadership. Under different leadership some settled in the Western side, present day North West Province others spread around Ntswanatsatsi to the present day Free State and Lesotho, others to present day Botswana others to present day Zambiaothers moved to the present day Gauteng in South Africa and they became patriarchs of the founding fathers of Bakgatla which also gave birth to Northern Sotho which in turn gave birth to different Northern clans with their dialects like BaPedi, Batlokwa, Babirwa, etc and others ended up in inter-marrying with other tribes they moved next to and mingled with like Swatis, Vendas and Tsongas and Ngunis and in some places these Northern Basotho' Sotho was diluted by the influence of these tribe they found in the area, they moved into and lived alongside. This is what happened to a subgroup of Northern Basotho who end up becoming Mapulana with their Sesotho influenced by Swati. Also some of the Northern Basotho having a common denominator of "apa" with Vendas, I mean Balovedu, BaGubu and Babirwa of Bobirwa in the Southern part of Botswana near the Zimbabwean border. All these Northern Sotho clans have their chief of leader, they never had a paramount king, so, it will be absurd to call them BaPedi because the BaPedi kings have never been their kings. They did their own things from Ramokgopha of Batlhokwa, Malebogo of Bahanawa, Matlala, etc, they were never part of the Pedi kingdom.


Northern Sotho is one of the Sotho languages of the Bantu family.
Although Northern Sotho shares the name Sotho with Southern Sotho, the two groups have less in common with each other than they have with Setswana.
Northern Sotho is also closely related to Setswana, sheKgalagari and siLozi. It is a standardised dialect, amalgamating several distinct varieties or dialects.
Until recently, Lobedu used to exist only in an unwritten form, and the standard Northern Sotho language and orthography was usually used for teaching and writing by this language community. As of 2018, a Khilovedu dictionary is being compiled in addition to proper Khilovedu orthography which is also in the process of being developed.
The monarch associated with this language community is Queen Modjadji. Lobedu is spoken by a majority of people in the Greater Tzaneen, Greater Letaba, and BaPhalaborwa municipalities, and a minority in Greater Giyani municipality, as well as in the Limpopo Province and Tembisa township in Gauteng. Its speakers are known as the Balobedu.
Sepulana exists in unwritten form and forms part of the standard Northern Sotho. Sepulana is spoken in Bushbuckridge area by the MaPulana people.
Northern Sotho is also spoken by the Mohlala people.

Writing system

Sepedi is written in the Latin alphabet. The letter š is used to represent the sound . The circumflex accent can be added to the letters e and o to distinguish their different sounds, but it is mostly used in language reference books. Some word prefixes, especially in verbs, are written separately from the stem.




Within nasal consonant compounds, the first nasal consonant sound is recognized as syllabic. Words such as nthuše "help me", are pronounced as. /n/ can also be pronounced as following a velar consonant.
Urban varieties of Northern Sotho, such as Pretoria Sotho, have acquired clicks in an ongoing process of such sounds spreading from Nguni languages.


Some examples of Sepedi words and phrases:
WelcomeKamogelo / Amogela
Good dayDumela / Dumelang / Thobela and Re a lotšha
How are you?O kae? Le kae?
I am fineKe gona.
I am fine too, thank youLe nna ke gona, ke a leboga.
Thank youKe a leboga / Re a leboga
Good luckMahlatse
Have a safe journeyO be le leeto le le bolokegilego
Good bye!Šala gabotse / Šalang gabotse / Sepela gabotse/Sepelang gabotse
I am looking for a jobKe nyaka mošomô
No smokingGa go kgogwe
No entranceGa go tsenwe
Beware of the steps!Hlokomela disetepese!
Congratulations on your birthdayMahlatse letšatšing la gago la matswalo
Seasons greetingsDitumedišo tša Sehla sa Maikhutšo
Merry ChristmasMahlogonolo a Keresemose
Merry Christmas and Happy New YearMahlogonolo a Keresemose le ngwaga wo moswa wo monate
ExpressionGontsha sa mafahleng
thank youke a leboga
excuse mentshwarele
I am sorryKe maswabi
I love youKe a go rata
Questions / sentencesDipotšišo / mafoko
Do you accept ?O amogela / Le
amogela ?
How much is this?Ke bokae e?
I want...Ke nyaka...
What are you doing?O dira eng?
What is the time?Ke nako mang?
Where are you going?O ya kae?
1one -tee
2two – pedi
3three – tharo
4four – nne
5five – hlano
6six – tshela
7seven – šupa
8eight – seswai
9nine – senyane
10ten – lesome
11eleven – lesometee
12twelve – lesomepedi
13thirteen – lesometharo
14fourteen – lesomenne
15fifteen – lesomehlano
20twenty – masomepedi
21twenty one – masomepedi-tee
22twenty two – masomepedi-pedi
50fifty – masomehlano
100hundred – lekgolo
1000thousand – sekete
Days of the weekMatšatši a beke
Months of the yearDikgwedi tša ngwaga
Computers and Internet termsDidirishwa tsa khomphutha le Inthanete
computersebaledi / khomphutara
e-mail addressaterese ya imeile
Internet cafékhefi ya Inthanete
website addressaterese ya weposaete
To understandGo kwešiša
Reed PipesDinaka


  • , , , and in Northern Sotho
  • Project to translate Free and Open Source Software into all the official languages of South Africa including Northern Sotho