List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Kiev
This list contains the names of all the Eastern Orthodox hierarchs whose title contains a reference to the city of Kiev, arranged chronologically and grouped as per the jurisdictions, some of them unrecognised.
HistoryThe history of the Russian Orthodox Church is usually traced to the Baptism of Rus' at Kiev, the date of which is commonly given as 988; however, the evidence surrounding this event is contested.
It is not certainly known when exactly the Metropolis of Kiev was established. Since the foundation of the church its hierarch held a title Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia with his episcopal see located in the city of Kiev. The church was created as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. There is an evidence that the first bishop might have been dispatched to Kiev in 864 by the Patriarch of Constantinople Photios I before the official Christianization of 988. It happened after Kiev was captured by Varangians in 860. It is also apparent that Prince of Kiev Askold might have been baptized due to the fact that there exist the Saint Nicholas Church at the Askold's Grave. During a rule of Prince Igor of Kiev, in Kiev existed the Saint Elijah Church, while during signing the 944 treaty with the Greeks some Ruthenians took an oath on the Bible.
The earliest metropolitan bishop whose name is known is Michael of Kiev.
Following the Mongol invasion and the 1240 sack of Kiev by Batu Khan communications between Kiev and Constantinople deteriorated. On the demand of the Golden Horde the newly appointed Kirill III of Kiev had to govern from the city of Vladimir, yet the official transfer of the episcopal see did not occur until 1299. Despite having to govern the church from Vladimir and later Moscow, hierarchs continued to be called Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia. Grand Princes of Vladimir and later Moscow controlled Kiev on the permission of the Khan of the Golden Horde.
Two other successor states of the Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia and Samogotia that controlled portions of territory of former Rus demanded to establish separate dioceses independent from Moscow. Sometimes their demands were approved, other times former eparchies were returned under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia. During the 14th century the church was de facto split in two or three. The Great Duchy of Moscow completely lost control of Kiev in the mid 14th century.
Starting from the 15th century, the church was finally reunited and continued to be governed from Moscow by the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia, despite being located in a neighboring country. During that time in the Holy Roman Empire the Council of Florence took place as a political and religious forum. Though resisting at first, the Great Prince of Moscow allowed the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia Isidore of Kiev to attend it. Isidore who was of Greek origin went forward to sign the Florentine Union uniting the Russian Orthodox Church with the Latin Church. The Great Prince of Moscow voided the union and placed Isidore in prison for sometime. Following that incident, the next Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia Jonah who was not approved by the Constantinople Patriarch changed his title to Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia in 1448. Since then and until 1589, no hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow were approved by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople declaring their complete autocephaly.
Notwithstanding, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople continued to appoint his metropolitans for dioceses of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The next hierarch of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gregory the Bulgarian was originally consecrated by a Latin Patriarch of Constantinople and received a title of Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and all Ruthenia. Later his appointed was also approved by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as well. The episcopal see of the new hierarch was located in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In 1588–1589 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremias II of Constantinople when traveling across the Eastern Europe, visited both Moscow and Vilnius. In Moscow Jeremias confirmed autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church and for the first time since 1448 consecrated Job of Moscow as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia. Later Jeremias stopped in Vilnius and consecrated Michael Rohoza as Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and all Ruthenia, thus again confirming division of the former Russian Orthodox Church. Soon thereafter, in 1596 the Metropolitan of Kiev and other top clergymen of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth signed the Union of Brest turning the Russian Orthodox Church under jurisdiction of the Latin Church and converting to the Ruthenian Uniate Church.
As the previous Florentine union, the Union of Brest was not accepted by all orthodox clergymen causing some eparchies to continue their operations as Eastern Orthodox. In 1620 the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem Theophanes consecrated Job as the new Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and all Ruthenia and Exarch of Ukraine. This appointment revitalized Eastern Orthodox churches and deepened the schism. On the other hand, the episcopal see was returned to Kiev for the first time since 1299. In 1646 last remnants of the Russian Orthodox Church in Carpathian region joined the Union of Uzhhorod and converted into the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church. At the same time, the eastern territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth which today part of Belarus and Ukraine entered a great turmoil and eventually were occupied by the Tsardom of Muscovy. Soon after occupation of Ukraine, in 1685 the Ruthenian Orthodox Church was transferred from under jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to under jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Moscow. The newly appointed metropolitan Gedeon was titled as Metropolitan of Kiev, Galich and all Little Russia. This transfer successfully terminated any remnants of the original Russian Orthodox Church centered in Kiev.
Orthodox Church of Rus'The church was established and governed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople in Kievan Rus' until the invasion of the Mogols of the Golden Horde and the eventual partition of Rus' between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Hungary, and the Ulus of Jochi with its vassal Grand Duchy of Moscow. At first it led to a succession of Muscovite dioceses into its own Metropolis and although it was not recognized in the beginning eventually it turned into Patriarchate. Later the dioceses that were under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were reorganized within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and as part of the Polonization process eventually joined the Union of Brest coming under communion with the Pope of Rome. The Eparchy of Mukačevo that was under the Kingdom of Hungary became one of the longest surviving dioceses of Eastern Orthodoxy in the west until it also was Catholicized though the Union of Uzhhorod.
Metropolitans of Kiev and all Rus'
- "Michael I and Leontius", 988–1004
- Theophylact, 988–1018
- John, 1008–1017
- Teopempt 1037–1043
- Hilarion 1051–
- Ephraim, 1055–
- George, 1072–
- John II Prodrom, 1077–1089
- John III, 1090–1091
- Nicholas, 1097–1101
- Nikephoros, 1104–1121
- Nikita, 1122–1126
- Michael, 1130–1145
- Clement, 1147–1159
- Constantine, 1156–1159
- Theodore, 1161–1163
- John IV, 1164–1166
- Costantine II, 1167–1177
- Michael II,
- "John V –"
- Nikephoros II, 1182–1197
- Matthew, 1210–1220
- Cyril, 1224–1233
- Joseph I, 1237–
- "Peter ", 1241–1246, never confirmed by the Patriarch
- Cyril II, 1250–1281
- Maximus, 1283–1299
Metropolitan of Kiev (Muscovy, Lithuania, Halych)In the 14th century the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos sanctioned creation of two additional metropolitan sees in Halych and Navahrudak.
In 1325 the Vladimir's seat was moved to Moscow
Following the signing of Council of Florence, Isidore of Kiev came back to Moscow as a Ruthenian cardinal in 1441, and was arrested after being accused of apostasy. In 1448 the Grand Duke of Moscow installed own Muscovite metropolitan of Kiev Jonah without the Patriarchal approval Gregory III of Constantinople. In 1458, the Orthodox dioceses within the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including Kiev, were reorganized and a metropolitan episcopal see was moved to Vilnius, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Metropolitans of Kiev, Galicia and All RutheniaPatriarch Isidore II of Constantinople reorganized the church and its primates were given a new title: Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia, and all Ruthenia thus commemorating the office of Metropolitan of Galicia. The episcopal see was located in Vilnius.
- Gregory II, 1458–1473 – Catholic metropolitan appointed by Pope Pius II
- Misail Pstruch, 1476–1480 – Catholic metropolitan accepted by Casimir IV Jagiellon, king of Poland and grand duke of Lithuania, after agreeing to adopt the 1439 Union of Florence; appointed by Pope Sixtus IV
- *, 1476–1482 – consecrated as Orthodox metropolitan of Kiev by Patriarch Raphael I of Constantinople but rejected by Casimir IV
- , 1481–1488 – first accepted Orthodox metropolitan since 1458
- Jonah Hlezna, 1489–1494
- , 1495–1497
- , 1499–1501
- , 1503–1507
- , 1509–1522
- , 1523–1533
- , 1534–1555
- , 1556–1567
- , 1568–1577
- , 1577–1579
- , 1579–1589
- Michael III, 1589–1599
Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia, all Ruthenia, Patriarchal ExarchIn 1620 – about 25 years after the implementation of the Union of Brest – Patriarch Cyril Lucaris, of Constantinople, re-established a rival with a hierarchy, within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The new metropolitan was organized with bishops who refused to join the Union of Brest. The first hierarch who was finally recognized by the Crown of Poland was Petro Mohyla.
- Job, 1620–1631
- Isaiah, 1631–1633
- Peter III, 1633–1646 – first accepted Orthodox metropolitan after re-installment
- Sylvester, 1647–1657
Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)
Metropolitans of Kiev, Galicia and of all Little Russia (1685–1770)
- Gedeon, 1685–1690
- Metropolitan Varlaam, 1690–1707
- Ioasaph, 1708–1718
- Archbishop Varlaam, 1722–1730, archbishop
- Raphael, 1731–1747, metropolitan since 1743
- Timothy, 1748–1757
- Arsenius, 1757–1770
Metropolitans of Kiev and Galicia (1770–1921)
- Gabriel, 1770–1783
- Samuel, 1783–1796
- Hierotheus, 1796–1799
- Gabriel II, 1799–1803
- Serapion, 1803–1822
- Eugene, 1822–1837
- Philaret, 1837–1857
- Isidore, 1858–1860
- Arsenius II, 1860–1876
- Philotheus, 1876–1882
- Platon, 1882–1891
- Joanicius, 1891–1900
- Theognostus, 1900–1903
- Flavian, 1903–1915
- Vladimir, 1915–1918
- * Nicodemus, 1918
- Anthony, 1918–1919
- * Nazarius Blinov, 1919–1921
Metropolitans and Archbishops of Kiev and Galicia (1921–1990)
- Michael, 1921–1925, bishop in 1921–27 exarch of Ukraine 1921–1929
- Georges Deliev, 1923–1928, bishop acting
- Macarius Karamzin, 1924, bishop acting
- Sergius Kuminsky, 1925–1930, bishop acting
- Demetrius Verbitsky, 1930–1932, archbishop
- Sergius Grishin, 1932–1934, archbishop
- Constantine, 1934–1937, exarch of Ukraine 1929–1937
- Alexander, 1937–1938
- Nicholas, 1941–1944, exarch of Ukraine 1941
- * During World War II all territory of Ukraine was occupied by the Nazi Germany therefore Metropolitan Nicholas moved to Moscow. The rest of bishops loyal to Moscow Patriarchate created Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox Church which was recognized by Metropolitan Nicholas. With the end of German occupation Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox Church was dissolved and incorporated back to the Russian Orthodox Church.
- * Oleksii Hromadskyi, 1941–1943
- * Panteleimon Rudyk, 1943–1944
- John, 1944–1964, exarch of Ukraine
- Ioasaph II, 1964–1966, exarch of Ukraine
- Philaret II, 1966–1990, exarch of Ukraine
The Living Church (1923–1941)In 1923, a major split occurred in the Moscow Patriarchate, with a majority of the bishops joining a reformist-minded wing of the Church, supported by the OGPU, the Soviet secret police. Across the territory of the USSR, many episcopal sees in the 1920s and 1930s had 2 parallel bishops: one from the Living Church, another from the Moscow Patriarchate. The Living church had its headquarter in Kharkiv and was active in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
- Tikhon, 1923
- Nikolay, 1923–1924
- Aleksandr, 1924
- Innokentiy, 1924–1929
- Iuvenaliy, 1928–1929
- Pimen, 1929–1935
- Aleksandr, 1935–1937
- Vladimir, 1938–1941
Metropolitans of Kiev and All Ukraine of the Moscow Patriarchate (1990–present)
- Philaret II Denysenko, 1990–1992
- Volodymyr II Sabodan, 1992–2014
- Onufriy Berezovsky, 2014–incumbent
Soviet renovation churches
All-Ukrainian Orthodox Autocephalous Synodical ChurchCreated in 1923, the church was part of all-Soviet Renovation movement. It was liquidated in 1935, but after the remaining communities were headed by acting primate.
- Pimen, 1923-1935
- Oleksandr, 1935-1937
Fraternal Parish Association of the Ukrainian Orthodox Autocephalous churches
- Feofil Buldovsky, 1925–1937
[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church] (1921–2018, defunct)
Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine (self-consecrated)
- Vasyl Lypkivsky, 1921–1927
- Mykola Boretsky, 1927–1930
- Ivan Pavlovsky, 1930–1936
Polish Orthodox Church period (World War II)In 1942, UAOC was re-established with help of the Polish Orthodox Church during occupation of Ukraine by the Nazi Germany. Polikarp Sikorsky was consecrated by Dionizy.
- Polikarp Sikorsky,, 1942–1944
Patriarchs of Kiev and all Rus-Ukraine (1990–2000)In 1990 the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church was reinstated in Ukraine, and the former Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada Metropolitan Mstyslav was enthroned as a Patriarch.
- Stepan Mstyslav, 1991–1993
- Dmytro Yarema, 1993–2000
Metropolitans of Kiev and All Ukraine (2000–2018)
- Mefodiy Kudriakov, 2000–2015
- Makariy Maletych, 2015–2018
Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev Patriarchate (1992–2018; 2019–)
- Patriarch Mstyslav, 1991–1993
- Patriarch Volodymyr, 1993–1995
- Patriarch Filaret, 1995–2018; 2019–present
Orthodox Church of Ukraine
As of December 2019, the OCU is recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople as well as the Patriarchate of Alexandria and Church of Greece.
Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine
- Epiphanius I, 2018–incumbent