"Comes", plural "comites", is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "comitatus", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or formal to justify specific denomination, e. g. a "cohors amicorum". "Comes" derives from "com-" and "ire".
Ancient Roman religion"Comes" was a common epithet or title that was added to the name of a hero or god in order to denote relation with another god.
The coinage of Roman Emperor Constantine I declared him "comes" to Sol Invictus qua god.
Imperial Roman curial titles and offices styled "''Comites''"Historically more significant, "Comes" became a secular title granted to trusted officials of the Imperial Curia, present or former, and others as sign of Imperial confidence. It developed into a formal, dignitary title, derived from the "Companions" of Alexander the Great and rather equivalent to the Hellenistic title of "philos basilikos" or the paladin title of a knight of the Holy Roman Empire and a Papal Palatinus. Thus the title was retained when the titulary was appointed, often promoted, to an office away from court, frequently in the field or a provincial administration. Subsequently, it was thought logical to connect the title to specific offices that demanded an incumbent official of high dignity, and even to include it as part of the official title.
As the Imperial Roman Curia increased in number and assimilated all political power, the Roman Emperors instituted a casual practice of appointing faithful servants to offices. This had been done elsewhere, e. g. regarding the Prefect of the Praetorian Guard and the amici principis. As Imperial administration expanded, however, new offices became necessary and decentralization demanded modifications. The result was the institution of the rank of "comes".
The "comites", often translated "counts", though they were neither feudal nor hereditary, became principal officials of the later Roman Empire. They held offices of all kinds from the army to the civil service, while retaining their direct access to the Emperor. Emperor Constantine I finalized them as the governmental echelon of "comites provinciarum" ; the comites of the new echelon were assigned alongside the vicarii in the civil dioceses of the latter so that the comites became permanent fixtures of Imperial government. The comites were fully enumerated as early as the beginning of the AD 5th century in the Notitia Dignitatum, but as offices were later added, it is not historically exhaustive.
The following sections describe examples of the kinds of comites.
At court or in the Imperial domainsSeveral of the major departments of the Imperial Curia and household had a principal official who was styled "comes" and assisted by an "officium" very similar to that of a Roman governor. They included:
- comes dispositonum: A deputy to the very powerful magister officiorum responsible for organizing the Imperial calendar and preparing the correspondence for distribution to the proper offices for transcription.
- comes domesticorum: A vir illustris who was principal of the domestici, a corps of bodyguards of the Emperor who were stationed in the Imperial Palace. There were two of these comital commanders, the comes domesticorum equitum for the equestrian knights and the comes domesticorum peditum for the foot soldiers.
- comes privatae largitionis: The custodian of the privy purse, who answered and was subordinate to the comes rerum privatarum.
- comes rerum privatarum: A powerful Imperial official responsible for the private estates and holdings of the Emperor and his family. He maintained the properties and collected the rents, of which most were deposited in the Aerarium, i. e., the treasury of the public funds of the State, and some in the Fiscus, i. e., the treasury of privy funds of the Emperor that the comes privatae largitionis administered.
- comes sacrarum largitionum: A vir illustris who was custodian of the sacrae largitiones of the Emperor and manager of the Imperial finances. He controlled all of the mints, each managed by a procurator; was the principal of numerous officials, including more procuratores, rationales, and praepositi, who collected senatorial taxes, custom duties, and some land taxes; was responsible for the yields of the mines; provided budgets for the civil service and armies; supplied all uniforms; and was competent for the minor offices of:
- *comes auri: The official responsible for gold.
- *comes sacrae vestis: The master of the wardrobe of the Emperor.
- *The 3 comites largitionum: The regional financial administrators of Italy, Africa, and Illyricum.
- *comes commerciorum for Illyricum.
- *comes metallorum per Illyricum: The official responsible for that region's gold mines.
Further, the principal officials of some less important governmental departments who were under the authority of otherwise styled, high ranking, territorial officials could be titled "comes", e. g. under the praefectus urbi of Rome, himself a vir illustris, was a comes formarum, comes riparum et alvei Tiberis et Cloacarum, and comes Portus.
The title "comes consistorianus" or "comes consistorialis" indicated specially appointed members to the consistorium, the council of the Roman emperor's closest advisors.
''comes rei militaris''The comes rei militaris held martial appointments, ranking superior to a dux but inferior to the magister peditum and magister equitum; they were the superiors of a series of military stations, each commanded by a praepositus limitis and/or unit commanders, e. g., tribunes of cohorts, alae, numeri, and in the Eastern Empire even legions.
The Notitia Dignitatum of the early AD 5th century enumerates 6 such offices, being of the dignity of vir spectabilis, in the Western Empire: comes Italiae, comes Africae, comes Tingitaniae, comes Tractus Argentoratensis, and comes Britanniarum ad Litoris Saxonici per Britanniam; and 2 in the Eastern Empire: comes Aegypti and comes Isauriae.
- comes Africae: Official responsible for the defense of Roman Africa.
- comes tractus Argentoratensis: Official responsible for the defense of part of Gallia.
- comes Avernorum: Official responsible for the defense of the other part of Gallia.
- comes Britanniarum: Official responsible for the defense of Britannia. This office presumably expired circa AD 410 when the last Roman troops left that province.
- comes Litoris Saxonici per Britanniam: Official responsible for the defense of the Saxon shore of Britannia.
- comes Hispaniarum: Official responsible for the defense of Hispania.
comites dominorum nostrorumThe comites dominorum nostrorum were a mounted Imperial bodyguard during the tetrarchy of Emperor Diocletian in circa AD 300.
Medieval adaptations of comital offices
Gothic ''Comites''The Goths that ruled Spain and Italy followed the Roman tradition of granting the title of "Comes" to the various principals of the departments of their royal households, including but not limited to the:
- Comes Cubiculariorum: Count in charge of the chamberlains.
- Comes Scanciorum: The Count who commanded the cup bearers.
- Comes Stabulorum: The Count who commanded the equerries and stables.
- Comes Notariorum: The Count who commanded the chancery, i. e., the writing office.
- Comes Thesaurorum: The Count who commanded the officials of the treasury.
Yet other comites served as regional officials. For administrative purposes, the Kingdom of the Franks was divided into small districts denominated "pagi", corresponding generally to the Roman civitas. The principal of a pagus was the Comes, corresponding to the German Graf. The King appointed the Comites to serve at his pleasure, and they were originally chosen from all classes, sometimes even from enfranchised serfs.
The essential competences of the Comes' were comprehensive in his pagus: martial, judicial, and executive; and in documents he is often described as the "agens publicus" of the King or "judex publicus/fiscalis". He was at once public prosecutor and judge, and was responsible for the execution of the sentences as well. As the delegate of the executive power, he had the right to exercise the "bannis regis", which gave him the right to command his military in the name of the King and to act as necessary to preserve the peace. As the King's representative, he exercised the royal right of protection of churches, widows, orphans, and the like. He enjoyed a triple "wergeld", but had no definite salary, being remunerated by receipt of specific revenues, which system contained the germs of discord, on account of the confusion of his public and private obligations.
According to philologists, the Anglo-Saxon word "gerefa", denoting "illustrious chief", however, is not connected to the German "Graf", which originally meant "servant"; compare the etymologies of the words "knight" and "valet". It is the more curious that the "gerefa" should end as a subservient reeve while the "graf" became a noble count.