Alliance An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alliance are called allies. Alliances form in many settings, including political alliances, military alliances, and business alliances. When the term is used in the context of war or armed struggle, such associations may also be called allied powers, especially when discussing World War I or World War II. A formal military alliance is not required for being perceived as an ally—co-belligerence, fighting alongside someone, is enough. According to this usage, allies become so not when concluding an alliance treaty but when struck by war. When spelled with a capital "A", "Allies" usually denotes the countries who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I, or those who fought against the Axis Powers in World War II. The term has also been used by the United States Army to describe the countries that gave assistance to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The Allied Powers in World War I were initially the United Kingdom, France, the Russian Empire, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro and Japan, joined later by Italy, Portugal, Romania, the United States, Greece and Brazil. Some, such as the Russian Empire, withdrew from the war before the armistice due to revolution or defeat. After the end of World War II and during the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed as a political and military alliance that promotes democratic values. More recently, the term "Allied forces" has also been used to describe the coalition of the Gulf War, as opposed to forces the Multi-National Forces in Iraq which are commonly referred to as "Coalition EffectsScholars are divided as to the impact of alliances. Several studies find that defensive alliances deter conflict. One study questions these findings, showing that alliance commitments deterred conflict in the prenuclear era but has no statistically meaningful impact on war in the postnuclear era. Another study finds that while alliance commitments deter conflict between sides with a recent history of conflict, alliances tend to provoke conflicts between states without such a history. A 2000 study in the Journal of found that allies fulfill their alliance commitments approximately 75% of the time. Most research suggests that democracies are more reliable allies than non-democracies. A 2004 study did however question whether alliance commitments by democracies are more durable. A 2018 study updated and extended the data from the 2000 Conflict Resolution Journal of Conflict Resolution study and found that allies only fulfill their commitments about 50% of the time from 1816 to 2003. According to the study, "States honored their alliance commitments 66% of the time prior to 1945 but the compliance rate drops to 22% from 1945 to 2003. Moreover, the rates of fulfillment for defense pacts and nonaggression pacts are dramatically lower than offensive alliances and neutrality agreements." International opinionAccording to a 2017 poll by WIN/GIA, the United States was the most preferred ally internationally. Russia and China, who preferred one another, both trailed America globally. Four countries, Bulgaria, Greece, Slovenia and Turkey, preferred Russia, despite being members of NATO. In Pakistan, 72% of respondents preferred ties to China, the largest margin of any country surveyed, while 46% of Bangladesh preferred India. A total of 22 countries indicated a preference for the United Kingdom at a rate of 10% or more, but the United States was the only country to prefer the Britain over any other, at a rate of 43%. Five counties preferred France at a rate of 10% or more, led by Belgium at a rate of 25%. A single country, Iraq expressed no preference, while three other countries, Lebanon, Palestine, and Slovenia, expressed no preference at a rate of 11% or more, although at a smaller rate than their preference for Russia on the part of Lebanon and Slovenia, and China on the part of Palestine. Kosovo reported the most unified opinion, preferring the United States at a rate of 92%, while Russia's most unified supporters were Mongolia, Armenia and Serbia. In total, 21 countries expressed a preference for America at a rate of 50% or more.
Popular articles Shooting of Breonna Taylor - Breonna Taylor , a 26-year-old African-American emergency medical technician, was fatally shot by Louisville Metro Police Department officers Jonathan Mattingly, Brett Hankison, and Myles Cosgrove ... Enola Holmes (film) - upcoming British mystery film based on the book series of the same name by Nancy Springer. The film is directed by Harry Bradbeer and written by Jack Thorne. Millie Bobby Brown st... Luis Suárez - Uruguayan professional footballer who plays as a striker for Spanish club Barcelona and the Uruguay national team. Often regarded as one of the best players in the wo... YouTube - American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in Februar... September 24 - Events. * 787 - Second Council of Nicaea: The council assembles at the church of Hagia Sophia. *1180 - Manuel I Komnenos, the last Byzantine Emperor of the Komnenian restoration, dies. *1645 - The ... Periodic table - tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical... 2020–21 UEFA Europa League - The 2020–21 UEFA Europa League will be the 50th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 12th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Euro... Popular movies Tenet (film) - co-production between the United Kingdom and United States, and stars John David Washington, Robert Pattin... The Devil All the Time (film) - upcoming American psychological thriller film based on the novel of the same name by Donald Ray Pollock. Directed and co-written by Antonio Campos and produced by Jake G... One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film) - 1975 American drama film directed by Miloš Forman, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. The film stars Jack Nicholson as Rand... Mulan (2020 film) - 2020 American action drama film based on the Chinese folklore "The Ballad of Mulan" and... Enola Holmes (film) - upcoming British mystery film based on the book series of the same name by Nancy Springer. The film is directed by Harry Bradbeer and written by Jack Thorne. Millie Bobby Brown st... The Karate Kid - 1984 American martial arts drama film written by Robert Mark Kamen and directed by John G. Avildsen. It is the first installment in The Karate Kid franchise, and stars Ralph Ma... Brian's Song - 1971 ABC Movie of the Week that recounts the details of the life of Brian Piccolo, a Chicago Bears football player stricken with terminal cancer after turning pro in 1965, told thr... Popular video games Minecraft - sandbox video game developed by Mojang Studios. Created by Markus "Notch" Persson in the Java programming language and released as a public alpha for personal computers in 2... Nier (video game) - action role-playing video game developed by Cavia and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. In Japan, the game was released as for the Xbox 360, while an alternate ... Roblox - online game platform and game creation system that allows users to program games and play games created by other users. Founded by David Baszucki and Erik Cassel in 2004 and released in... Rocket League - vehicular soccer video game developed and published by Psyonix. The game was first released for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4 in July 2015, with ports for Xbox One and Ninte... Cyberpunk 2077 - upcoming role-playing video game developed and published by CD Projekt. It is scheduled to be released for PlayStation 4, Windows, and Xbox One on 19 November 2020, Stadia by th... Among Us - Among Us - English video game published on June 18, 2018. It was presented as indie game, party video game.... Nier: Automata - 2017 action role-playing video game developed by PlatinumGames and published by Square Enix. It... Popular books Re:Zero − Starting Life in Another World - Japanese light novel series written by Tappei Nagatsuki and illustrated by Shin'ichirō Ōtsuka. The story centres on, a hikikomori who suddenly fin... Bible - collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. They generally consider the Bible to be a product of divine inspiration and a... Nineteen Eighty-Four - dystopian novel by English novelist George Orwell. It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final book... One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (novel) - novel written by Ken Kesey. Set in an Oregon psychiatric hospital, the narrative serves as a study of institutional processes and the human mind as well as a cri... My Youth Romantic Comedy Is Wrong, As I Expected - Japanese light novel series written by Wataru Watar... Sword Art Online - Japanese light novel series written by Reki Kawahara and illustrated by abec. The series takes place in the near future and focuses on protagonist Kazuto "Kirito" Ki... Dune (novel) - 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert, originally published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Aw... Popular television series
The Boys (2019 TV series) - American superhero web television series based on the comic book of the same name by Garth Ennis and Darick Robertson. Developed by Eric Kripke for Amazon, it follows the eponymous te... Ratched (TV series) - upcoming American drama web television series, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey, that is set to premiere on Netflix on September 18, 2020. The ser... Cobra Kai - American action comedy-drama web television series, presented in an episodic storytelling format, and based on The Karate Kid film series. It was created by Jon Hurwitz, Hayden Sch... Lucifer (TV series) - American urban fantasy television series developed by Tom Kapinos that premiered on Fox on January 25, 2016. It is based on the DC Comics character created by Neil Gaiman, Sam Kieth, a... The 100 (TV series) - American post-apocalyptic science fiction drama television series that premiered on March 19, 2014, on The CW. The series, developed by Jason Rothenberg, is loosely based on the novel ... Money Heist - Spanish heist crime drama television series created by Álex Pina. The series traces two long-prepared heists led by the Professor, one on the Royal Mint of Spain, and one on the Ba... WandaVision - upcoming American web television miniseries created for Disney+ by Jac Schaeffer, based on the Marvel Comics characters Wanda Maximoff / Scarlet Witch and Vision. It is set in the ...
OWIKI.org. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.